, Volume 214, Issue 1, pp 55–70 | Cite as

Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature




The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies examining developmental trajectories of the brain in healthy samples may provide a new framework to understand mechanisms underlying ELS sequelae.


The goal of this review was twofold. The first was to summarize findings from longitudinal data on normative brain development. The second was to utilize this framework of normative brain development to interpret changes in developmental trajectories associated with deficits in cognitive and affective function following ELS.


Five principles of normative brain development were identified and used to discuss behavioral and neural sequelae of ELS. Early adversity was found to be associated with deficits in a range of cognitive (cognitive performance, memory, and executive functioning) and affective (reward processing, processing of social and affective stimuli, and emotion regulation) functions.


Three general conclusions emerge: (1) higher-order, complex cognitive and affective functions associated with brain regions undergoing protracted postnatal development are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of ELS; (2) the amygdala is particularly sensitive to early ELS; and (3) several deficits, particularly those in the affective domain, appear to persist years after ELS has ceased and may increase risk for later psychopathology.


Early life stress Brain Child abuse Cognitive function Emotion regulation 



During the preparation of this paper, Pia Pechtel received research funding from the German Research Foundation [Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)]. DAP was supported by Award Numbers R01MH068376 and R21MH078979 from the National Institute of Mental Health and by a 2008 National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Independent Investigator Award. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institutes of Health, or NARSAD.


Dr. Pizzagalli has received research support from ANT North America Inc. (Advanced Neuro Technology (ANT)], consulting fees from ANT North America Inc. and AstraZeneca, and honoraria from AstraZeneca.


  1. Accident Compensation Corporation (2008) Sexual abuse and mental injury: practice guidelines for Aotearoa/New Zealand. ACC, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Admon R, Lubin G, Stern O, Rosenberg K, Sela L, Ben-Ami H et al (2009) Human vulnerability to stress depends on amygdala’s predisposition and hippocampal plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:14120–14125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adolphs R (2002) Neural systems for recognizing emotion. Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:169–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anda R, Croft JB, Felitti V, Nordenberg D, Giles W, Wiliamson DF et al (1999) Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. JAMA 228:1652–1658Google Scholar
  5. Anda R, Felitti V, Bremner J, Walker J, Whitfield C, Perry B et al (2006) The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 256:174–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anda RF, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Dube SR, Giles WH (2007) Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. Am J Prev Med 32:389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anda R, Dong M, Brown D, Felitti V, Giles W, Perry G et al (2009) The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members. BMC Public Health 9:106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andersen SL, Tomada A, Vincow ES, Valente E, Polcari A, Teicher MH (2008) Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 20:292–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anisman H, Matheson K (2005) Stress, depression, and anhedonia: caveats concerning animal models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:525–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey JA, McCloskey LA (2005) Pathways to adolescent substance use among sexually abused girls. J Abnorm Child Psychol 33:39–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauer PM, Hanson JL, Pierson RK, Davidson RJ, Pollak SD (2009) Cerebellar volume and cognitive functioning in children who experienced early deprivation. Biol Psychiatry 66:1100–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berridge KC (2007) The debate over dopamine’s role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:391–431Google Scholar
  13. Bos KJ, Fox N, Zeanah CH, Nelson CA (2009) Effects of early psychosocial deprivation on the development of memory and executive function. Frontiers Behav Neurosci 3Google Scholar
  14. Brake WG, Sullivan RM, Gratton A (2000) Perinatal distress leads to lateralized medial prefrontal cortical dopamine hypofunction in adult rats. J Neurosci 20:5538–5543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bremner JD, Vythilingam M, Vermetten E, Southwick SM, McGlashan T, Nazeer A et al (2003a) MRI and PET study of deficits in hippocampal structure and function in women with childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 160:924–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bremner JD, Vythilingam M, Vermetten E, Southwick SM, McGlashan T, Staib LH et al (2003b) Neural correlates of declarative memory for emotionally valenced words in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to early childhood sexual abuse. Biol Psychiatry 53:879–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown DW, Anda RF, Tiemeier H, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Croft JB et al (2009) Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of premature mortality. Am J Prev Med 37:389–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cabib S, Puglisi-Allegra S (1996) Stress, depression and the mesolimbic dopamine system. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 128:331–342Google Scholar
  19. Carrion VG, Weems CF, Eliez S, Patwardhan A, Brown W, Ray RD et al (2001) Attenuation of frontal asymmetry in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 50:943–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carrion VG, Weems CF, Reiss AL (2007) Stress predicts brain changes in children: a pilot longitudinal study on youth stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the hippocampus. Pediatrics 119:509–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chapman DP, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Edwards VJ, Anda RF (2004) Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. J Affect Disord 82:217–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Charney DS (2004) Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. Am J Psychiatry 161:195–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cicchetti D, Curtis WJ (2005) An event-related potential study of the processing of affective facial expressions in young children who experienced maltreatment during the first year of life. Dev Psychopathol 17:641–677Google Scholar
  24. Cohen NJ, Lojkasek M, Zadeh ZY, Pugliese M, Kiefer H (2008) Children adopted from China: a prospective study of their growth and development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49:458–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Colvert E, Rutter M, Kreppner J, Beckett C, Castle J, Groothues C et al (2008) Do theory of mind and executive function deficits underlie the adverse outcomes associated with profound early deprivation? Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:1057–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cutrona CE, Russell DW, Brown PA, Clark LA, Hessling RM, Gardner KA (2005) Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women. J Abnorm Psychol 114:3–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. De Bellis MD (2005) The psychobiology of neglect. Child Maltreat 10:150–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. De Bellis MD, Baum AS, Birmaher B, Keshavan MS, Eccard CH, Boring AM et al (1999a) Developmental traumatology: Part I. Biological stress systems. Biol Psychiatry 45:1259–1270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Clark DB, Casey BJ, Giedd JN, Boring AM et al (1999b) Developmental traumatology: Part II. Brain development. Biol Psychiatry 45:1271–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Frustaci K, Shifflett H, Iyengar S, Beers SR et al (2002a) Superior temporal gyrus volumes in maltreated children and adolescents with PTSD. Biol Psychiatry 51:544–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Shifflett H, Iyengar S, Beers SR, Hall J et al (2002b) Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a sociodemographically matched study. Biol Psychiatry 52:1066–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. De Bellis MD, Hooper SR, Spratt EG, Woolley DP (2009) Neuropsychological findings in childhood neglect and their relationships to pediatric PTSD. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 15:868–878Google Scholar
  33. De Bellis MD, Hooper SR, Woolley DP, Shenk C (2010) Demographic, maltreatment, and neurobiological correlates of PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol 35:570–577Google Scholar
  34. Dillon DG, Holmes AJ, Birk JL, Brooks N, Lyons-Ruth K, Pizzagalli DA (2009) Childhood adversity is associated with left basal ganglia dysfunction during reward anticipation in adulthood. Biol Psychiatry 66:206–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dong M, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Williams JE, Chapman DP et al (2004) Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: adverse childhood experiences study. Circulation 110:1761–1766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Driessen M, Herrmann J, Stahl K, Zwaan M, Meier S, Hill A et al (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline personality disorder and early traumatization. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:1115–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman DP, Williamson DF, Giles WH (2001) Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: findings from the adverse childhood experiences study. JAMA 286:3089–3096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dunlop BW, Nemeroff CB (2007) The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:327–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Edwards VJ, Holden GW, Felitti VJ, Anda RF (2003) Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: results from the adverse childhood experiences study. Am J Psychiatry 160:1453–1460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ernst M, Paulus MP (2005) Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical Perspective. Biol Psychiatry 58:597–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Falconer E, Bryant R, Felmingham KL, Kemp AH, Gordon E, Peduto A et al (2008) The neural networks of inhibitory control in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 33:413–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Filipas HH, Ullman SE (2006) Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization. J Interpers Violence 21:652–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Finklehor D (1994) The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl 18:409–417Google Scholar
  44. Forbes EE, Dahl RE (2005) Neural systems of positive affect: relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Dev Psychopathol 17:827–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fries ABW, Pollak SD (2004) Emotion understanding in postinstitutionalized Eastern European children. Dev Psychopathol 16:355–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Frodl T, Reinhold E, Koutsouleris N, Donohoe G, Bondy B, Reiser M et al (2010) Childhood stress, serotonin transporter gene and brain structures in major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:2316–2325Google Scholar
  47. Gerber A, Peterson S (2009) Anatomical brain magnetic resonance imaging of typically developing children. Appl Brain Imaging 48:465–470Google Scholar
  48. Giedd J, Blumenthal J, Jeffries N, Castellanos F, Liu H, Zijdenbos A et al (1999) Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nat Neurosci 2:861–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Ciszewski A, Kasai K, Lasko NB, Orr SP et al (2002) Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma. Nat Neurosci 5:1242–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Glaser D (2000) Child abuse and neglect and the brain—a review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41:97–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gogtay N, Thompson PM (2010) Mapping gray matter development: implications for typical development and vulnerability to psychopathology. Brain Cogn 72:6–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gogtay N, Giedd J, Lusk L, Hayashi K, Greenstein D, Vaituzis A et al (2004) Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:8174–8179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gogtay N, Nugent TF, Herman DH, Ordonez A, Greenstein D, Hayashi KM et al (2006) Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development. Hippocampus 16:664–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gotlib IH, Joormann J (2010) Cognition and depression: current status and future directions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:285–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grassi-Oliveira R, Ashy M, Stein LM (2008) Psychobiology of childhood maltreatment: effects of allostatic load? Rev Bras Psiquiatr 30:60–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Green JG, McLaughlin KA, Berglund PA, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM et al (2010) Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:113–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gunnar M, Quevedo K (2007) The neurobiology of stress and development. Annu Rev Psychol 58:145–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Guyer AE, Kaufman J, Hodgdon H, Masten C, Jazbec S, Pine DS et al (2006) Behavioral alterations in reward system function: the role of childhood maltreatment and psychopathology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1059–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hasler G, Fromm S, Carlson PJ, Luckenbaugh DA, Waldeck T, Geraci M et al (2008) Neural response to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder in remission and healthy subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:521–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Heim C, Nemeroff CB (2001) The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biol Psychiatry 49:1023–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jackowski AP, Douglas-Palumberi H, Jackowski M, Win L, Schultz RT, Staib LW et al (2008) Corpus callosum in maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatr Res Neuroimaging 162:256–261Google Scholar
  62. Joffe RT, Gatt JM, Kemp AH, Grieve S, Dobson-Stone C, Kuan SA et al (2009) Brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism, the five factor model of personality and hippocampal volume: implications for depressive illness. Hum Brain Mapp 30:1246–1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Johnson DE, Guthrie D, Smyke AT, Koga SF, Fox NA, Zeanah CH et al (2010) Growth and associations between auxology, caregiving environment, and cognition in socially deprived Romanian children randomized to foster vs gngoing institutional care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010 Apr 5. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  64. Jurado M, Rosselli M (2007) The elusive nature of executive functions: a review of our current understanding. Neuropsychol Rev 17:213–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Karl A, Schaefer M, Malta LS, Dörfel D, Rohleder N, Werner A (2006) A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:1004–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Karten YJG, Olariu A, Cameron HA (2005) Stress in early life inhibits neurogenesis in adulthood. Trends Neurosci 28:171–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kenny PJ, Markou A (2006) Nicotine self-administration acutely activates brain reward systems and induces a long-lasting increase in reward sensitivity. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1203–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kim MJ, Whalen PJ (2009) The structural integrity of an amygdala-prefrontal pathway predicts trait anxiety. J Neurosci 29:11614–11618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Langenecker SA, Kennedy SE, Guidotti LM, Briceno EM, Own LS, Hooven T et al (2007) Frontal and limbic activation during inhibitory control predicts treatment response in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 62:1272–1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Leh S, Petrides M, Strafella A (2010) The neural circuitry of executive functions in healthy subjects and Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:70–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lenroot RK, Giedd JN (2008) The changing impact of genes and environment on brain development during childhood and adolescence: initial findings from a neuroimaging study of pediatric twins. Dev Psychopathol 20:1161–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lenroot RK, Giedd JN (2010) Sex differences in the adolescent brain. Brain Cogn 72:46–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lenroot RK, Gogtay N, Greenstein DK, Wells EM, Wallace GL, Clasen LS et al (2007) Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence. Neuroimage 36:1065–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lenroot RK, Schmitt JE, Ordaz SJ, Wallace GL, Neale MC, Lerch JP et al (2009) Differences in genetic and environmental influences on the human cerebral cortex associated with development during childhood and adolescence. Hum Brain Mapp 30:163–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Loman MM, Wiik KL, Frenn KA, Pollak SD, Gunnar MR (2009) Postinstitutionalized children’s development: growth, cognitive, and language outcomes. J Dev Behav Pediatr 30:426–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lu LH, Dapretto M, O’Hare ED, Kan E, McCourt ST, Thompson PM et al (2009) Relationships between brain activation and brain structure in normally developing children. Cereb Cortex 19:2595–2604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C (2009) Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 10:434–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lyons-Ruth K (2008) Contributions of the mother-infant relationship to dissociative, borderline, and conduct symptoms in young adulthood. Infant Ment Health J 29:203–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lyons DM, Yang C, Sawyer-Glover AM, Moseley ME, Schatzberg AF (2001) Early life stress and inherited variation in monkey hippocampal volumes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:1145–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lyons DM, Parker KJ, Zeitzer JM, Buckmaster CL, Schatzberg AF (2007) Preliminary evidence that hippocampal volumes in monkeys predict stress levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Biol Psychiatry 62:1171–1174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Maniglio R (2009) The impact of child sexual abuse on health: a systematic review of reviews. Clin Psychol Rev 29:647–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Marsh R, Gerber AJ, Peterson BS (2008) Neuroimaging studies of normal brain development and their relevance for understanding childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:1233–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Matthews K, Robbins TW (2003) Early experience as a determinant of adult behavioural responses to reward: the effects of repeated maternal separation in the rat. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:45–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mehta M, Gore-Langton E, Golembo N, Colvert E, Williams S, Sonuga-Barke E (2010) Hyporesponsive reward anticipation in the basal ganglia following severe institutional deprivation early in life. J Cogn Neurosci 22:2316–2325Google Scholar
  85. Mueller SC, Maheu FS, Dozier M, Peloso E, Mandell D, Leibenluft E et al (2010). Early-life stress is associated with impairment in cognitive control in adolescence: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia 48:3037–3044Google Scholar
  86. Navalta CP, Polcari A, Webster DM, Boghossian A, Teicher MH (2006) Effects of childhood sexual abuse on neuropsychological and cognitive function in college women. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 18:45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Nelson EC, Heath AC, Madden PAF, Cooper ML, Dinwiddie SH, Bucholz KK et al (2002) Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes: results from a twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nelson CA, Zeanah CH, Fox NA, Marshall P, Smyke AT, Guthrie D (2007) Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: the Bucharest early intervention project. Science 318:1937–1940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Noble KG, Tottenham N, Casey BJ (2005) Neuroscience perspectives on disparities in school readiness and cognitive achievement. Future Child 15:71–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ochsner KN, Gross JJ (2005) The cognitive control of emotion. Trends Cogn Sci 9:242–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Paolucci E, Genuis M, Violato C (2001) A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse. J Psychol 135:17–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Parker SW, Nelson CA, Bucharest early intervention project core group (2005) An event-related potential study of the impact of institutional rearing on face recognition. Dev Psychopathol 17:621–639Google Scholar
  93. Paul RH, Henry L, Stuart MG, Guilmette T, Niaura R, Bryant R et al (2008) The relationship between early life stress and microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum in a non-clinical population. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 4:193–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Paus T, Keshavan M, Giedd JN (2008) Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nat Rev Neurosci 9:947–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Payne J, Jackson E, Hoscheidt S, Ryan L, Jacobs W, Nadel L (2007) Stress administered prior to encoding impairs neutral but enhances emotional long-term episodic memories. Learn Mem 17:861–868Google Scholar
  96. Pederson CL, Maurer SH, Kaminski PL, Zander KA, Peters CM, Stokes-Crowe LA et al (2004) Hippocampal volume and memory performance in a community-based sample of women with posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to child abuse. J Trauma Stress 17:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Peper JS, Schnack HG, Brouwer RM, Van Baal GC, Pjetri E, Székely E et al (2009) Heritability of regional and global brain structure at the onset of puberty: a magnetic resonance imaging study in 9-year-old twin pairs. Hum Brain Mapp 30:2184–2196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pereda N, Guilera G, Forns M, Gómez-Benito J (2009) The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: a continuation of Finkelhor (1994). Child Abuse Negl 33:331–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Perez CM, Widom CS (1994) Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes. Child Abuse Negl 18:617–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pine DS, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Montgomery L, Monk CS, McClure E et al (2005) Attention bias to threat in maltreated children: implications for vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry 162:291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Pirkola S, Isometsä E, Aro H, Kestilä L, Hämäläinen J, Veijola J et al (2005) Childhood adversities as risk factors for adult mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40:769–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Pizzagalli DA, Holmes AJ, Dillon DG, Goetz EL, Birk JL, Bogdan R et al (2009a) Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 166:702–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pizzagalli DA, Iosifescu D, Hallett LA, Ratner KG, Fava M (2009b) Reduced hedonic capacity in major depressive disorder: evidence from a probabilistic reward task. J Psychiatr Res 43:76–87Google Scholar
  104. Pollak SD, Kistler DJ (2002) Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9072–9076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pollak SD, Cicchetti D, Hornung K, Reed A (2000) Recognizing emotion in faces: developmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Dev Psychol 36:679–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Pollak SD, Klorman R, Thatcher JE, Cicchetti D (2001) P3b reflects maltreated children’s reactions to facial displays of emotion. Psychophysiology 38:267–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pollak SD, Nelson CA, Schlaak MF, Roeber BJ, Wewerka SS, Wiik KL et al (2010) Neurodevelopmental effects of early deprivation in postinstitutionalized children. Child Dev 81:224–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pryce CR, Dettling AC, Spengler M, Schnell CR, Feldon J (2004) Deprivation of parenting disrupts development of homeostatic and reward systems in marmoset monkey offspring. Biol Psychiatry 56:72–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pujol J, Vendrell P, Junque C, Marti-Vilalta JL, Capdevila A (1993) When does human brain development end? Evidence of corpus callosum growth up to adulthood. Ann Neurol 34:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Rayworth B, Wise L, Harlow B (2004) Childhood abuse and risk of eating disorders in women. Epidemiology 15:271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rutter M, O’Connor TG (2004) Are there biological programming effects for psychological development? Findings from a study of Romanian adoptees. Dev Psychol 40:81–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sánchez MM, Hearn EF, Do D, Rilling JK, Herndon JG (1998) Differential rearing affects corpus callosum size and cognitive function of rhesus monkeys. Brain Res 812:38–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sapolsky RM (1996) Stress, glucocorticoids, and damage to the nervous system: the current state of confusion. Stress 1:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schiffer F, Teicher M, Papanicolaou A (1995) Evoked potential evidence for right brain activity during the recall of traumatic memories. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 7:169–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Schmitt JE, Lenroot RK, Wallace GL, Ordaz S, Taylor KN, Kabani N et al (2008) Identification of genetically mediated cortical networks: a multivariate study of pediatric twins and siblings. Cereb Cortex 18:1737–1747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Schoedl AF, Costa MC, Mari JJ, Mello MF, Tyrka AR, Carpenter LL et al (2010) The clinical correlates of reported childhood sexual abuse: an association between age at trauma onset and severity of depression and PTSD in adults. J Child Sex Abuse 19:156–170Google Scholar
  117. Schott BH, Minuzzi L, Krebs RM, Elmenhorst D, Lang M, Winz OH et al (2008) Mesolimbic functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during reward anticipation correlate with reward-related ventral striatal dopamine release. J Neurosci 28:14311–14319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Shackman JE, Shackman AJ, Pollak SD (2007) Physical abuse amplifies attention to threat and increases anxiety in children. Emotion 7:838–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Shaw P, Kabani NJ, Lerch JP, Eckstrand K, Lenroot R, Gogtay N et al (2008) Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 28:3586–3594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Spataro J, Mullen PE, Burgess PM, Wells DL, Moss SA (2004) Impact of child sexual abuse on mental health: prospective study in males and females. Br J Psychiatry 184:416–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Stein MB, Koverola C, Hanna C, Torchia MG, McClarty B (1997) Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychol Med 27:951–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Strekalova T, Spanagel R, Bartsch D, Henn FA, Gass P (2004) Stress-induced anhedonia in mice is associated with deficits in forced swimming and exploration. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:2007–2017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Teicher M, Andersen S, Polcari A, Anderson C, Navalta C, Kim D (2003) The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:33–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Teicher M, Dumont N, Ito Y, Vaituzis C, Giedd J, Andersen S (2004) Childhood neglect is associated with reduced corpus callosum area. Biol Psychiatry 56:80–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Teicher M, Samson J, Polcari A, McGreenery C (2006a) Sticks, stones, and hurtful words: relative effects of various forms of childhood maltreatment. Am J Psychiatry 163:993–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Teicher M, Tomoda A, Andersen S (2006b) Neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment: are results from human and animal studies comparable? Ann NY Acad Sci 1071:313–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Tiemeier H, Lenroot RK, Greenstein DK, Tran L, Pierson R, Giedd JN (2010) Cerebellum development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal morphometric MRI study. Neuroimage 49:63–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Thompson PM, Giedd JN, Woods RP, MacDonald D, Evans AC, Toga AW (2000) Growth patterns in the developing brain detected by using continuum mechanical tensor maps. Nature 404:190–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tomoda A, Sheu YS, Rabi K, Suzuki H, Navalta CP, Polcari A et al (2010) Exposure to parental verbal abuse is associated with increased gray matter volume in superior temporal gyrus. NeuroImage 2010 July 15. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  130. Tottenham N, Sheridan MA (2010) A review of adversity, the amygdala and the hippocampus: a consideration of developmental timing. Front Hum Neurosci 8(3):68Google Scholar
  131. Tottenham N, Hare TA, Quinn BT, McCarry TW, Nurse M, Gilhooly T et al (2010) Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically large amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation. Dev Sci 13:46–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2009) Administration on children, youth and families. Child maltreatment 2007. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  133. van den Dries L, Juffer F, van IJzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ (2010) Infants’ physical and cognitive development after international adoption from foster care or institutions in China. J Dev Behav Pediatr 31:144–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Vythilingam M, Heim C, Newport J, Miller AH, Anderson E, Bronen R et al (2002) Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. Am J Psychiatry 159:2072–2080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Vythilingam M, Nelson EE, Scaramozza M, Waldeck T, Hazlett G, Southwick SM et al (2009) Reward circuitry in resilience to severe trauma: an fMRI investigation of resilient special forces soldiers. Psychiatry Res 172:75–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Weber D, Reynolds C (2004) Clinical perspectives on neurobiological effects of psychological trauma. Neuropsychol Rev 14:115–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Woon FL, Hedges DW (2008) Hippocampal and amygdala volumes in children and adults with childhood maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis. Hippocampus 18:729–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Woon FL, Sood S, Hedges DW (2010) Hippocampal volume deficits associated with exposure to psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: a meta-analysis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:1181–1188Google Scholar
  139. Wright MOD, Crawford E, Del Castillo D (2009) Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: the mediating role of maladaptive. Child Abuse Negl 33:59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress ResearchMcLean Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBelmontUSA

Personalised recommendations