, Volume 198, Issue 4, pp 529–537 | Cite as

Effects of perinatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the emotional reactivity of the offspring: a longitudinal behavioral study in Wistar rats

  • Viviana Trezza
  • Patrizia Campolongo
  • Tommaso Cassano
  • Teresa Macheda
  • Pasqua Dipasquale
  • Maria Rosaria Carratù
  • Silvana Gaetani
  • Vincenzo CuomoEmail author
Original Investigation



The endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the control of emotionality and recent clinical findings have shown that heavy prenatal exposure to cannabis is significantly associated with self-reported anxiety symptoms in exposed children. However, the long-term neurobehavioral consequences of in utero exposure to low–moderate doses of cannabinoid compounds have never been investigated.


The objective of this study was to investigate whether perinatal exposure to moderate doses of the active constituent of cannabis, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), influences the emotional reactivity of rat offspring.


Primiparous Wistar rats were treated during pregnancy and lactation with doses of THC equivalent to the current estimates of moderate cannabis consumption in humans (2.5–5 mg kg−1, per os, from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 9). The emotional reactivity of infant, adolescent, and adult offspring was investigated using the isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization, social interaction, and elevated plus-maze tests, respectively.


Perinatal THC treatment did not affect parameters of reproduction; however, at the dose of 5 mg kg−1, it increased the number of ultrasounds emitted by rat pups removed from the nest, inhibited social interaction and play behavior in the adolescent offspring, and induced an anxiogenic-like profile in the adult offspring tested in the elevated plus-maze test.


These results suggest that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of emotionality since early developmental stages. Thus, even moderate doses of cannabinoid compounds, when administered during the perinatal period, can have profound consequences for brain maturation, leading to long-lasting neurodevelopmental alterations.


THC Marijuana Cannabis Pregnancy Lactation Anxiety Emotionality Ultrasonic vocalization Social interaction Elevated plus-maze 



We thank Dr. L.J.M.J. Vanderschuren for critical reading of the manuscript and valuable suggestions and Daniela Valeri, Angela Saraceno, and Alessandra Sordi for technical help. This study was supported by grants PRIN 2005 (to M.R.C.), and FIRB 2006 (to V.C.) from Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca Scientifica-Italy.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viviana Trezza
    • 1
  • Patrizia Campolongo
    • 2
  • Tommaso Cassano
    • 2
  • Teresa Macheda
    • 2
  • Pasqua Dipasquale
    • 1
  • Maria Rosaria Carratù
    • 3
  • Silvana Gaetani
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Cuomo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and PharmacologySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Human PhysiologyUniversity of BariBariItaly

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