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Psychopharmacology

, Volume 186, Issue 2, pp 226–234 | Cite as

Interactions between THC and cannabidiol in mouse models of cannabinoid activity

  • S. A. Varvel
  • J. L. Wiley
  • R. Yang
  • D. T. Bridgen
  • K. Long
  • A. H. Lichtman
  • B. R. Martin
Original Investigation

Abstract

Rationale

Interest persists in characterizing potential interactions between Δ9-tetrahydocannabinol (THC) and other marijuana constituents such as cannabidiol (CBD). Such interactions may have important implications for understanding the long-term health consequences of chronic marijuana use as well as for attempts to develop therapeutic uses for THC and other CB1 agonists.

Objectives

We investigated whether CBD may modulate the pharmacological effects of intravenously administered THC or inhaled marijuana smoke on hypoactivity, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia, the well characterized models of cannabinoid activity.

Results

Intravenously administered CBD possessed very little activity on its own and, at a dose equal to a maximally effective dose of THC (3 mg/kg), failed to alter THC’s effects on any measure. However, higher doses of CBD (ED50=7.4 mg/kg) dose-dependently potentiated the antinociceptive effects of a low dose of THC (0.3 mg/kg). Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg CBD, but not 3 mg/kg, significantly elevated THC blood and brain levels. No interactions between THC and CBD were observed in several variations of a marijuana smoke exposure model. Either quantities of CBD were applied directly to marijuana, CBD and THC were both applied to placebo plant material, or mice were pretreated intravenously with 30 mg/kg CBD before being exposed to marijuana smoke.

Conclusions

As the amount of CBD found in most marijuana strains in the US is considerably less than that of THC, these results suggest that CBD concentrations relevant to what is normally found in marijuana exert very little, if any, modulatory effects on CB1-receptor-mediated pharmacological effects of marijuana smoke.

Keywords

Marijuana Δ9-THC Cannabidiol Intravenous Inhalation Tetrad Antinociception 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by DA-02396 and DA-03672.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Varvel
    • 1
  • J. L. Wiley
    • 1
  • R. Yang
    • 1
  • D. T. Bridgen
    • 1
  • K. Long
    • 1
  • A. H. Lichtman
    • 1
  • B. R. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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