Dysfunction of executive neuropsychological performance, mediated by the prefrontal cortex, has been the central focus of recent attention deficit/hyperkinetic disorder (AD-HKD) research. The role of other potential neuropsychological “risk factors”, such as recognition memory, remains understudied. Further, the impact of methylphenidate (MPH) on key neuropsychological processes in AD-HKD remains poorly understood.
To compare the performance of boys with AD-HKD on a spatial working memory (SWM) task and on two non-working memory tasks [a simultaneous and delayed matching-to-sample task (DMtS) and a pattern-recognition task] with that of healthy boys, and to investigate the impact of acute and chronic MPH on performance of these tasks.
Baseline performance of 75 stimulant-naive boys with AD-HKD was compared with that of 70 healthy boys. The AD-HKD boys were then re-tested following the administration of acute and chronic challenges with MPH (0.3 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg) under randomised double-blind placebo controlled conditions.
Compared with healthy boys, the AD-HKD boys demonstrated performance deficits on all neuropsychological tasks. A single dose of MPH restored performance on the DMtS task but had no impact on the SWM or pattern-recognition tasks. Chronic MPH administration did not alter performance on the SWM task but did improve performance on both the pattern-recognition and DMtS tasks. However, the acute restorative effect of MPH on DMtS diminished with repeated administration.
Our results suggest that current conceptualisations of the neuropsychological basis of AD-HKD and the proposed therapeutic mechanisms of MPH require broadening.
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This work was supported by a local trust through a TENOVUS-Scotland initiative. We thank M. Thrower, K. Antonson, A. Brown, J. Esperon, K. Walker and S. Trudu for assistance.
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Rhodes, S.M., Coghill, D.R. & Matthews, K. Methylphenidate restores visual memory, but not working memory function in attention deficit-hyperkinetic disorder. Psychopharmacology 175, 319–330 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-1833-7
- Delayed matching to sample
- Visual memory
- Working memory