Cannabis is more than simply Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Basile AC, Sertie JA, Freitas PC, Zanini AC (1988) Anti-inflammatory activity of oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera. J Ethnopharmacol 22:101–109

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Bornheim LM, Grillo MP (1998) Characterization of cytochrome P450 3A inactivation by cannabidiol: possible involvement of cannabidiol-hydroxyquinone as a P450 inactivator. Chem Res Toxicol 11:1209–1216

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, Plank C, Dietrich H (1993) Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects upon inhalation. J Pharm Sci 82:660–664

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Calhoun SR, Galloway GP, Smith DE (1998) Abuse potential of dronabinol (Marinol). J Psychoact Drugs 30: 187–196

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Carlini EA, Karniol IG, Renault PF, Schuster CR (1974) Effects of marihuana in laboratory animals and man. Br J Pharmacol 50:299–309

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Chait LD, Pierri J (1989) Some physical characteristics of NIDA marijuana cigarettes. Addict Behav 14:61–67

    Google Scholar 

  7. Crowell PL (1999) Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenes. J Nutr 129:775S–778S

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Falk AA, Hagberg MT, Lof AE, Wigaeus-Hjelm EM, Wang ZP (1990) Uptake, distribution and elimination of alpha-pinene in man after exposure by inhalation. Scand J Work Environ Health 16:372–378

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Fairbairn JW, Pickens JT (1981) Activity of Cannabis in relation to its Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Br J Pharmacol 72:401–409

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Gil ML, Jimenez J, Ocete MA, Zarzuelo A, Cabo MM (1989) Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck. Pharmazie 44:284–287

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Hampson AJ, Grimaldi M, Lolic M, Wink D, Rosenthal R, Axelrod J (2000) Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana. Ann NY Acad Sci 899:274–282

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Komori T, Fujiwara R, Tanida M, Nomura J, Yokoyama MM (1995) Effects of citrus fragrance on immune function and depressive states. Neuroimmunomodulation 2:174–180

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Lorenzetti BB, Souza GE, Sarti SJ, Santos Filho D, Ferreira SH (1991) Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34:43–48

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, Malik AS, Andreakos E, Mechoulam R, Feldmann M (2000) The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:9561–9566

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. McPartland JM, Russo EB (2001) Cannabis and cannabis extracts: greater than the sum of their parts? J Cannabis Ther 1:103–132

    Google Scholar 

  16. Mechoulam R, Ben-Shabat S (1999) From gan-zi-gun-nu to anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol: the ongoing story of cannabis. Nat Prod Rep 16:131–143

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Notcutt W (2002) Medicinal cannabis extracts in chronic pain. J Cannabis Ther 2:101–102

    Google Scholar 

  18. Rao VS, Menezes AM, Viana GS (1990) Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 42:877–878

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Robson PJ, Wade DT, Makela PM, House H (2002) Cannabis medicinal extracts (CME), including cannabidiol, alleviated neurogenic symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Symposium on the Cannabinoids. International Cannabinoid Research Society, Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, Calif., p 56

  20. Ross SA, ElSohly MA (1996) The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa. J Nat Prod 59:49–51

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Russo E, Macarah CM, Todd CL, Medora RS, Parker KK (2000) Pharmacology of the essential oil of hemp at 5HT1A and 5HT2a receptors. 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy. J Nat Prod

  22. Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, Kirlin KA (2002) Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: an examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2:3–57

    Google Scholar 

  23. Salgueiro JB, Ardenghi P, Dias M, Ferreira MB, Izquierdo I, Medina JH (1997) Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58:887–91

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Tambe Y, Tsujiuchi H, Honda G, Ikeshiro Y, Tanaka S (1996) Gastric cytoprotection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene. Planta Med 62:469–70

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Wachtel SR, ElSohly MA, Ross RA, Ambre J, de Wit H (2002) Comparison of the subjective effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology 161:331–339

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Whittle BA, Guy GW, Robson P (2001) Prospects for new cannabis-based prescription medicines. J Cannabis Ther 1:183–205

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG (1982) Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology 76:245–250

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Zuardi AW, Morais SL, Guimaraes FS, Mechoulam R (1995) Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol. J Clin Psychiatry 56:485–486

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ethan B. Russo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Russo, E.B., McPartland, J.M. Cannabis is more than simply Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Psychopharmacology 165, 431–432 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-002-1348-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Terpenoid
  • Limonene
  • Cannabinol
  • Cannabis Extract
  • Flavonoid Component