Smoothing factor, order of prolongation and actual multigrid convergence
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We consider the Fourier analysis of multigrid methods (of Galerkin type) for symmetric positive definite and semi-positive definite linear systems arising from the discretization of scalar partial differential equations (PDEs). We relate the so-called smoothing factor to the actual two-grid convergence rate and also to the convergence rate of the V-cycle multigrid. We derive a two-sided bound that defines an interval containing both the two-grid and V-cycle convergence rate. This interval is narrow and away from 1 when both the smoothing factor and an additional parameter are small enough. Besides the smoothing factor, the convergence mainly depends on the angle between the range of the prolongation and the eigenvectors of the system matrix associated with small eigenvalues. Nice V-cycle convergence is guaranteed if the tangent of this angle has an upper bound proportional to the eigenvalue, whereas nice two-grid convergence requires a bound proportional to the square root of the eigenvalue. We also discuss the well-known rule which relates the order of the prolongation to that of the differential operator associated to the problem. We first define a frequency based order which in most cases amounts to the so-called high frequency order as defined in Hemker (J Comput Appl Math 32:423–429, 1990). We give a firmer basis to the related order rule by showing that, together with the requirement of having the smoothing factor away from one, it provides necessary and sufficient conditions for having the two-grid convergence rate away from 1. A stronger condition is further shown to be sufficient for optimal convergence with the V-cycle. The presented results apply to rigorous Fourier analysis for regular discrete PDEs, and also to local Fourier analysis via the discussion of semi-positive systems as may arise from the discretization of PDEs with periodic boundary conditions.
Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)65F10 65N55 65N12
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