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Advancement in nanotechnology for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: scope and potential applications

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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is a hyperactive immune disorder that results in severe inflammation in synovial joints, cartilage, and bone deterioration, resulting in immobilization of joints. Traditional approaches for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with some limiting factors such as suboptimal patient compliance, inability to control the progression of disorder, and safety concerns. Therefore, innovative drug delivery carriers for efficient therapeutic delivery at inflamed synovial sites with better safety assessment are urgently needed to address these issues. From this perspective, nanotechnology is an outstanding alternative to traditional drug delivery approaches, and it has shown great promise in developing novel carriers to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Considering the current research and future application of nanocarriers, it is believed that nanocarriers can be a crucial element in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. This paper covers all currently available pathophysiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment options. Future research for the reduction of synovial inflammation should focus on developing multifunction nanoparticles capable of delivering therapeutic agents with improved safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness to be commercialized.

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Abbreviations

RA:

Rheumatoid arthritis

TNF:

Tumor necrosis factor

ILs:

Interleukins

MMPs:

Matrix metalloproteinases

NF-κB:

Nuclear factor-κB

MHC:

Major histocompatibility complex

NSAIDs:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

GCs:

Glucocorticoids

DMARDs:

Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

SLNs:

Solid lipid nanoparticles

GSH:

Glutathione

PAMAM:

Polyamidoamine

CFA:

Complete Freund’s adjuvant

CIA:

Collagen-induced arthritis

IFA:

Incomplete Freund’s adjuvant

AIA:

Adjuvant-induced arthritis

ELS:

Ectopic lymphoid structures

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization, R.R N.R., and M.G.; validation, R.R., N.R., M.G.; investigation, A.S, P.K., H.S.T.; resources, M.G., data curation, R.R., N.R. and.; writing—original draft preparation, R.R N.R., and M.G. writing—review and editing, and visualization, P.K., A.S., H.S.T and M.G.; supervision, M.G. All the authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. No paper mill and artificial intelligence was used for preparation of this manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Madhu Gupta.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Rani, R., Raina, N., Sharma, A. et al. Advancement in nanotechnology for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: scope and potential applications. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 396, 2287–2310 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-023-02514-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-023-02514-5

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