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Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid

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Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.

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Anti-inflammatory drugs


Reactive oxygen species

B. trimera :

Baccharis trimera


Hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera


Nuclear magnetic resonance


High-performance liquid chromatography




Water + vehicle


Ethanol + vehicle


Ethanol + HEBT


Reduced glutathione


Lipid hydroperoxide


Superoxide dismutase


Glutathione S-transferase

LD50 :

Median lethal dose


Standard error of the mean


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This research was supported by Fundação Araucária grants and scholarship of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES/DS). We give thanks to Marília Locatelli Corrêa-Ferreira for helping in some phytochemical experiments.

Author contributions

FARL was responsible for every step of the experiments, data analysis, and manuscript preparation. LMS and DMF contributed with the in vivo experiments and manuscript writing. LFG and DGB contributed with the in vivo experiments. TBLP and ELBL contributed with Baccharis trimera’s production and extract preparation, while RLBS and MEAS performed the phytochemical analysis. MFPW, MEAS, and AA were responsible for data discussion and manuscript correction. AA was the senior researcher responsible for the project.

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Correspondence to Alexandra Acco.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. The procedures performed in animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution (UFPR).

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dos Reis Lívero, F.A., da Silva, L.M., Ferreira, D.M. et al. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 389, 985–998 (2016).

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