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Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 75, Issue 8, pp 459–464 | Cite as

Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1) and bladder cancer susceptibility in the Turkish population

  • Gökçe A. Törüner
  • Cemaliye Akyerli
  • Ahmet Uçar
  • Tuncay Akı
  • Necmettin Atsu
  • Haluk Özen
  • Mesut Tez
  • Mesut Çetinkaya
  • Tayfun Özçelik
Metabolic Activation/Inactivation

Abstract.

We investigated the effect of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes, and GSTP1 313 A/G polymorphism on bladder cancer susceptibility in a case control study of 121 bladder cancer patients, and 121 age- and sex-matched controls of the Turkish population. The adjusted odds ratio for age, sex, and smoking status is 1.94 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.15–3.26] for the GSTM1 null genotype, and 1.75 (95% CI 1.03–2.99) for the GSTP1 313 A/G or G/G genotypes. GSTT1 was shown not to be associated with bladder cancer. Combination of the two high-risk genotypes, GSTM1 null and GSTP1 313 A/G or G/G, revealed that the risk increases to 3.91-fold (95% CI 1.88–8.13) compared with the combination of the low-risk genotypes of these loci. In individuals with the combined risk factors of cigarette smoking and the GSTM1 null genotype, the risk of bladder cancer is 2.81 times (95% CI 1.23–6.35) that of persons who both carry the GSTM1-present genotype and do not smoke. Similarly, the risk is 2.38-fold (95% CI 1.12–4.95) for the combined GSTP1 313 A/G and G/G genotypes and smoking. These findings support the role for the GSTM1 null and the GSTP1 313 AG or GG genotypes in the development of bladder cancer. Furthermore, gene-gene (GSTM1-GSTP1) and gene-environment (GSTM1-smoking, GSTP1-smoking) interactions increase this risk substantially.

Bladder cancer Gene polymorphism Glutathione transferase 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gökçe A. Törüner
    • 1
  • Cemaliye Akyerli
    • 1
  • Ahmet Uçar
    • 1
  • Tuncay Akı
    • 2
  • Necmettin Atsu
    • 2
  • Haluk Özen
    • 2
  • Mesut Tez
    • 3
  • Mesut Çetinkaya
    • 4
  • Tayfun Özçelik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, 06533 Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
  3. 3.Atatürk Chest Disease Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  4. 4.Department of Urology, Ankara Numune Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

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