Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Uranium in drinking water: a public health threat

  • Review Article
  • Published:
Archives of Toxicology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Uranium (U) has no known essential biological functions. Furthermore, it is well known for its toxicity, radioactivity, and carcinogenic potency. Impacts on human health due to U exposure have been studied extensively by many researchers. Chronic exposure to low-level U isotopes (radionuclides) may be interlinked with cancer etiology and at high exposure levels, also kidney disease. Other important issues covered U and fertilizers, and also U in soils or human tissues as an easily measurable indicator element in a pathophysiological examination. Furthermore, phosphate fertilization is known as the important source of contamination with U in the agricultural land, mainly due to contamination in the phosphate rock applied for fertilizer manufacture. Therefore, long-term usage of U-bearing fertilizers can substantially increase the concentration of U in fertilized soils. It should also be noted that U is an active redox catalyst for the reaction between DNA and H2O2. This review is aimed to highlight a series on various hydro-geochemical aspects in different water sources and focused on the comparison of different U contents in the drinking water sources and presentation of data in relation to health issues.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ahmed H, Young S, Shaw G (2012) Solubility and mobility of thorium and uranium in soils: the effect of soil properties on Th and U concentrations in soil solution. Geophys Res Abstr 14(EGU2012-2994). https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2012/EGU2012-2994.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2020

  • Alvarado JC, Balsiger B, Röllin S, Jakob A, Burger M (2014) Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan). J Environ Radioact 138:1–10

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ansoborlo E, Lebaron-Jacobs L, Prat O (2015) Uranium in drinking-water: a unique case of guideline value increases and discrepancies between chemical and radiochemical guidelines. Environ Int 77:1–4

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arzuaga X, Rieth SH, Bathija A, Cooper GS (2010) Renal effects of exposure to natural and depleted uranium: a review of the epidemiologic and experimental data. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 13(7–8):527–545

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Atkins ML, Santos IR, Perkins A, Maher DT (2016) Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia). J Environ Radioact 154:83–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.01.014

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bair W (1995) The ICRP human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. Radiat Prot Dosim 60(4):307–310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ballou J, Gies R, Case A, Haggard D, Buschbom R, Ryan J (1986) Deposition and early disposition of inhaled uranium-233 uranyl nitrate and uranium-232 uranyl nitrate in the rat. Health Phys 51:755–772

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Banning A, Benfer M (2017) Drinking water uranium and potential health effects in the German federal state of Bavaria. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080927

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bellés M, Linares V, Luisa Albina M, Sirvent J, Sánchez DJ, Domingo JL (2007) Melatonin reduces uranium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Pineal Res 43(1):87–95

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bjørklund G, Pivina L, Dadar M, Semenova Y, Chirumbolo S, Aaseth J (2019) Mercury exposure, epigenetic alterations, and brain tumorigenesis: a possible relationship? Curr Med Chem. https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867326666190930150159

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bjørklund G, Pivina L, Dadar M et al (2020) Depleted uranium and Gulf War illness: updates and comments on possible mechanisms behind the syndrome. Environ Res 181:108927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108927

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blake JM, Harte P, Becher K (2019) Differentiating anthropogenic and natural sources of uranium by geochemical fingerprinting of groundwater at the Homestake uranium mill, Milan, New Mexico, USA. Environ Earth Sci 78(13):384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-019-8385-y

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blaurock-Busch E, Busch YM, Friedle A, Buerner H, Parkash C, Kaur A (2014) Comparing the metal concentration in the hair of cancer patients and healthy people living in the Malwa region of Punjab, India. Clin Med Insights Oncol 8:1–13

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bleise A, Danesi PR, Burkart W (2003) Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview. J Environ Radioact 64(2–3):93–112

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brugge D, Goble R (2002) The history of uranium mining and the Navajo people. Am J Public Health 92(9):1410–1419

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Brugge D, de Lemos JL, Oldmixon B (2005) Exposure pathways and health effects associated with chemical and radiological toxicity of natural uranium: a review. Rev Environ Health 20(3):177–193. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh.2005.20.3.177

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bundschuh J, Litter M, Ciminelli VS et al (2010) Emerging mitigation needs and sustainable options for solving the arsenic problems of rural and isolated urban areas in Latin America—a critical analysis. Water Res 44(19):5828–5845

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chandrajith R, Nanayakkara S, Itai K et al (2011) Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications. Environ Geochem Health 33(3):267–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9339-1

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chen Z, Li J, Zhao T-J et al (2011) Metallothioneins protect cytosolic creatine kinases against stress induced by nitrogen-based oxidants. Biochem J 441(2):623–632

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Christophersen OA (2012) Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure. Microb Ecol Health Dis 23:14787. https://doi.org/10.3402/mehd.v23i0.14787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Claycamp HG, Luo D (1994) Plutonium-catalyzed oxidative DNA damage in the absence of significant alpha-particle decay. Radiat Res 137(1):114–117

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Colmenero Sujo L, Montero Cabrera ME, Villalba L et al (2004) Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico. J Environ Radioact 77(2):205–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.03.008

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations NRC (1988) Health risks of radon and other internally deposited alpha-emitters: Beir IV. National Academies Press, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper KL, Dashner EJ, Tsosie R, Cho YM, Lewis J, Hudson LG (2016) Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 291:13–20

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Corlin L, Rock T, Cordova J et al (2016) Health effects and environmental justice concerns of exposure to uranium in drinking water. Curr Environ Health Rep 3(4):434–442

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • deLemos J, Brugge D, Cajero M et al (2009) Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district. Environ Health 8:29. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-8-29

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Dockery DW, Pope CA, Xu X et al (1993) An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities. N Engl J Med 329(24):1753–1759

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Tomas JM, Corbella J (1987) Acute toxicity of uranium in rats and mice. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39(1):168–174. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01691806

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Edition F (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Chron 38(4):104–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Erdei E, Shuey C, Pacheco B, Cajero M, Lewis J, Rubin RL (2019) Elevated autoimmunity in residents living near abandoned uranium mine sites on the Navajo Nation. J Autoimmun 99:15–23

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Frisbie SH, Mitchell EJ, Sarkar B (2013) World Health Organization increases its drinking-water guideline for uranium. Environ Sci Process Impacts 15:1817–1823

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gao N, Huang Z, Liu H, Hou J, Liu X (2019) Advances on the toxicity of uranium to different organisms. Chemosphere 237:124548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124548

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garmash S, Smirnova V, Karp O et al (2014) Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions. J Environ Radioact 127:163–170

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garreis RM, Christ CL (1965) Solutions, minerals and equilibria. Harper & Row, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Guzmán ER, Alberich ME, Regil EO (2002) Uranium and phosphate behavior in the vadose zone of a fertilized corn field. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 254(3):509–517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hakonson-Hayes AC, Fresquez P, Whicker F (2002) Assessing potential risks from exposure to natural uranium in well water. J Environ Radioact 59:29–40

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hao Y, Ren J, Liu J et al (2012) The protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of depleted uranium in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 111(6):402–410

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hart WE, Marczak SP, Kneller AR, French RA, Morris DL Jr (2013) The abilities of selenium dioxide and selenite ion to coordinate DNA-bound metal ions and decrease oxidative DNA damage. J Inorg Biochem 125:1–8

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Homma-Takeda S, Kokubo T, Terada Y et al (2013) Uranium dynamics and developmental sensitivity in rat kidney. J Appl Toxicol 33(7):685–694

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hund L, Bedrick EJ, Miller C et al (2015) A Bayesian framework for estimating disease risk due to exposure to uranium mine and mill waste on the Navajo Nation. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 178(4):1069–1091

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kabata-Pendias A, Mukherjee AB (2007) Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Kaishwa SJ, Marwa EM, Msaky JJ, Mwakalasya WN (2018) Uranium natural levels in soil, rock and water: assessment of the quality of drinking water in Singida Urban District, Tanzania. J Water Health 16(4):542–548. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.254

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Karbownik-Lewińska M, Stępniak J, Lewiński A (2012) High level of oxidized nucleosides in thyroid mitochondrial DNA; damaging effects of Fenton reaction substrates. Thyroid Res 5:24. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-6614-5-24

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kathren RL, Burklin RK (2008) Acute chemical toxicity of uranium. Health Phys 94(2):170–179

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kato M, Azimi MD, Fayaz SH et al (2016) Uranium in well drinking water of Kabul, Afghanistan and its effective, low-cost depuration using Mg–Fe based hydrotalcite-like compounds. Chemosphere 165:27–32

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kim Y-S, Park H-S, Kim J-Y et al (2004) Health risk assessment for uranium in Korean groundwater. J Environ Radioact 77:77–85

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Krauskopf KB, Bird DK (1967) Introduction to geochemistry, vol 72. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurttio P, Komulainen H, Leino A, Salonen L, Auvinen A, Saha H (2005) Bone as a possible target of chemical toxicity of natural uranium in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 113:68–72. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7475

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurttio P, Harmoinen A, Saha H et al (2006) Kidney toxicity of ingested uranium from drinking water. Am J Kidney Dis 47(6):972–982

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liesch T, Hinrichsen S, Goldscheider N (2015) Uranium in groundwater—fertilizers versus geogenic sources. Sci Total Environ 536:981–995

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, He X-Q, Huang X et al (2013) Resveratrol protects mouse oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced oxidative damage. PLoS ONE 8(10):e77960

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Markabayeva A, Bauer S, Pivina L et al (2018) Increased prevalence of essential hypertension in areas previously exposed to fallout due to nuclear weapons testing at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan. Environ Res 167:129–135

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miller AC, Stewart M, Brooks K, Shi L, Page N (2002) Depleted uranium-catalyzed oxidative DNA damage: absence of significant alpha particle decay. J Inorg Biochem 91:246–252

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Missimer TM, Teaf C, Maliva RG, Danley-Thomson A, Covert D, Hegy M (2019) Natural radiation in the rocks, soils, and groundwater of Southern Florida with a discussion on potential health impacts. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101793

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Miyazaki I, Asanuma M, Kikkawa Y et al (2011) Astrocyte-derived metallothionein protects dopaminergic neurons from dopamine quinone toxicity. Glia 59(3):435–451

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mory C, Colliex C, Revet B, Delain E (1981) Improved visualization of single-and double-stranded nucleic acids by STEM. Ultramicroscopy 7(2):161–167

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moxnes JF, Christophersen OA (2008) The Spanish flu as a worst case scenario? Microb Ecol Health Dis 20:1–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/08910600701699067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mudd GM, Patterson J (2010) Continuing pollution from the Rum Jungle U–Cu project: a critical evaluation of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation. Environ Pollut 158(5):1252–1260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.01.017

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mudie NY, Swerdlow AJ, Gusev BI et al (2010) Twinning in the offspring of parents with chronic radiation exposure from nuclear testing in Kazakhstan. Radiat Res 173(6):829–836. https://doi.org/10.1667/RR1722.1

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nolan J, Weber KA (2015) Natural uranium contamination in major US aquifers linked to nitrate. Environ Sci Technol Lett 2(8):215–220

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Okaneku J, Vearrier D, Mckeever R, Lasala G, Greenberg MI (2015) Urine uranium concentrations and renal function in residents of the United States—2001 to 2010. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 53(10):931–934

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Patra A, Mohapatra S, Sahoo S et al (2013) Age-dependent dose and health risk due to intake of uranium in drinking water from Jaduguda, India. Radiat Prot Dosim 155(2):210–216

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pavlakis N, Pollock CA, McLean G, Bartrop R (1996) Deliberate overdose of uranium: toxicity and treatment. Nephron 72(2):313–317

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pearson J (1980) Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving: the case of the uranium industry. J Community Health 6(2):136–147

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pikryl J, Pickett D, Murphy W, Pearcy E (1997) Migration behavior of naturally occurring radionuclides at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico. J Contam Hydrol 26:61–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prat O, Vercouter T, Ansoborlo E et al (2009) Uranium speciation in drinking water from drilled wells in southern Finland and its potential links to health effects. Environ Sci Technol 43(10):3941–3946

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pratviel G (2012) Oxidative DNA damage mediated by transition metal ions and their complexes. Met Ions Life Sci 10:201–216. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2172-2_7

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Radespiel-Troger M, Meyer M (2013) Association between drinking water uranium content and cancer risk in Bavaria, Germany. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 86(7):767–776. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-012-0806-0

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MA, Hasegawa H (2011) High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking. Sci Total Environ 409(22):4645–4655

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rango T, Jeuland M, Manthrithilake H, McCornick P (2015) Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka. Sci Total Environ 518–519:574–585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.097

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raymond-Whish S, Mayer LP, O’Neal T et al (2007) Drinking water with uranium below the US EPA water standard causes estrogen receptor-dependent responses in female mice. Environ Health Perspect 115(12):1711–1716

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Reimann C, Birke M (2010) Geochemistry of european bottled water. Borntraeger Science Publishers, Stuttgart

    Google Scholar 

  • Richardson WS 3rd, Phillips CR, Luttrell J, Hicks R, Cox C (1999) Application of remedy studies to the development of a soil washing pilot plant that uses mineral processing technology: a practical experience. J Hazard Mater 66:47–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3894(98)00211-8

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rossiter HM, Owusu PA, Awuah E, Macdonald AM, Schafer AI (2010) Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: water costs and scope for advanced treatment. Sci Total Environ 408(11):2378–2386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.01.053

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rubin RL (2015) Drug-induced lupus. Expert Opin Drug Saf 14(3):361–378

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Santos CR, Martinho A, Quintela T, Gonçalves I (2012) Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of metallothioneins. IUBMB Life 64(2):126–135

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schnug E, Lottermoser BG (2013) Fertilizer-derived uranium and its threat to human health. Environ Sci Technol 47(6):2433–2434. https://doi.org/10.1021/es4002357

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Seldén AI, Lundholm C, Edlund B et al (2009) Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells. Environ Res 109(4):486–494

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Semenova Y, Pivina L, Manatova A et al (2019a) Mental distress in the rural Kazakhstani population exposed and non-exposed to radiation from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. J Environ Radioact 203:39–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.02.013

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Semenova Y, Zhunussov Y, Pivina L et al (2019b) Trace element biomonitoring in hair and blood of occupationally unexposed population residing in polluted areas of East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar regions. J Trace Elem Med Biol 56:31–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.07.006

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shaki F, Hosseini M-J, Ghazi-Khansari M, Pourahmad J (2012) Toxicity of depleted uranium on isolated rat kidney mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 1820(12):1940–1950

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma N, Singh J (2017) Human kidney and skeleton uranium burden, radiation dose and health risks from high uranium contents in drinking water of Bathinda district (Malwa region) of Punjab state, India. Radiat Prot Dosim 176(3):242–251

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shin W, Oh J, Choung S et al (2016) Distribution and potential health risk of groundwater uranium in Korea. Chemosphere 163:108–115

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Skeppström K, Olofsson B (2007) Uranium and radon in groundwater. Eur Water 17(18):51–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Tatone C, Heizenrieder T, Di Emidio G et al (2011) Evidence that carbonyl stress by methylglyoxal exposure induces DNA damage and spindle aberrations, affects mitochondrial integrity in mammalian oocytes and contributes to oocyte ageing. Hum Reprod 26(7):1843–1859

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor D (1996) Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. J Radiol Prot. https://doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/16/1/013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toccalino PL, Norman JE, Scott JC (2012) Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the US—occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity. Sci Total Environ 431:262–270

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Gerwen M, Alpert N, Lieberman-Cribbin W et al (2020) Association between uranium exposure and thyroid health: a national health and nutrition examination survey analysis and ecological study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030712

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • VanDerslice J (2011) Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations. Am J Public Health 101(S1):S109–S114

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Villalba L, Montero-Cabrera ME, Manjon-Collado G et al (2006) Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico). Radiat Prot Dosim 121(2):148–157. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nci382

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner SE, Burch JB, Bottai M et al (2011) Groundwater uranium and cancer incidence in South Carolina. Cancer Causes Control 22(1):41–50

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wang S, Ran Y, Lu B et al (2019) A review of uranium-induced reproductive toxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01920-2

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Williams KH, Bargar JR, Lloyd JR, Lovley DR (2013) Bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater: a systems approach to subsurface biogeochemistry. Curr Opin Biotechnol 24(3):489–497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2012.10.008

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Winde F, Erasmus E, Geipel G (2017) Uranium contaminated drinking water linked to leukaemia-Revisiting a case study from South Africa taking alternative exposure pathways into account. Sci Total Environ 574:400–421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.035

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wrenn M, Durbin P, Howard B (1985) Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium. Health Phys 48:601–633

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yapar K, Çavuşoğlu K, Oruc E, Yalcin E (2010) Protective role of Ginkgo biloba against hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in uranium-treated mice. J Med Food 13:179–188

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zamora ML, Tracy B, Zielinski J, Meyerhof D, Moss M (1998) Chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water: a study of kidney bioeffects in humans. Toxicol Sci 43:68–77

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zobel CR, Beer M (1961) Electron stains: I. Chemical studies on the interaction of DNA with uranyl salts. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 10(3):335–346

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Geir Bjørklund.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bjørklund, G., Semenova, Y., Pivina, L. et al. Uranium in drinking water: a public health threat. Arch Toxicol 94, 1551–1560 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02676-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02676-8

Keywords

Navigation