Coffee consumption, metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis: good or bad stuff?
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Despite the wide consumption of coffee, its anti-inflammatory effect on clinical severity of psoriasis is still debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the coffee consumption and clinical severity of psoriasis in a sample of patients stratified according to the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and smoking. This cross-sectional case–control observational study was conducted on 221 treatment-naïve psoriatic patients. Lifestyle habits, anthropometric measures, clinical and biochemical evaluations were obtained. Clinical severity of psoriasis was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Data on energy caloric intake and coffee consumption were collected using a 7-day food diary record. The coffee consumption was analyzed as coffee intake (consumers and non-consumers) and daily servings (range 0–4 servings/day). Coffee consumers have a lower PASI score vs non-consumers (p < 0.001). The lowest PASI score and MetS prevalence were found in patients consuming 3 cups of coffee/day (p < 0.001), which was also the most common daily serving (34.8%), whereas the highest PASI score was found among those drinking ≥ 4 cups/day. Grouping the case patients according to smoking and MetS, the best odds of PASI score was observed in those drinking 3 cups of coffee per day and no smokers, after adjusting for total energy intake (OR 74.8; p < 0.001). As a novel finding, we reported a negative association between coffee intake, MetS prevalence and clinical severity of psoriasis. The evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of coffee on clinical severity of psoriasis, whose metabolic risk increases along with its clinical severity, could be of great importance from a public health perspective.
KeywordsCoffee consumption Clinical severity of psoriasis PASI score Metabolic syndrome Cigarette smoking Nutritionist
We would like to thank Dr. Daniela Laudisio for data retrieval.
The authors’ responsibilities were as follows: LB and SS: were responsible for the concept and design of the study and interpreted data and drafted the manuscript; GM, CDS, GA, MM, and AB: helped interpret the findings and contributed substantially to the writing of the manuscript; Only AF: conducted statistical analyses; GM and AC: provided a critical review of the manuscript. All authors contributed to and agreed on the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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