Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 97–107 | Cite as

Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art

  • Giovanna MuscogiuriEmail author
  • Barbara Altieri
  • Cedric Annweiler
  • Giancarlo Balercia
  • H. B. Pal
  • Barbara J. Boucher
  • John J. Cannell
  • Carlo Foresta
  • Martin R. Grübler
  • Kalliopi Kotsa
  • Luca Mascitelli
  • Winfried März
  • Francesco Orio
  • Stefan Pilz
  • Giacomo Tirabassi
  • Annamaria Colao
Review Article


The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document’s topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as “yes” (agreement with the content and/or wording) or “no” (disagreement). The adopted rule was that statements supported by ≥75 % of votes would be immediately accepted, while those with <25 % would be rejected outright. Others would be subjected to further discussion and subsequent voting, where ≥67 % support or, in an eventual third round, a majority of ≥50 % would be needed. This document finds that the current evidence support a role for vitamin D in bone health but not in other health conditions. However, subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been found to be at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Therefore, although at the present time there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D supplementation as treatment of chronic diseases, the treatment of vitamin D deficiency should be desiderable in order to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.


Vitamin D Musculoskeletal disorders Cancer Cardiovascular diseases Dementia Autism Diabetes mellitus Hypogonadism Fertility PCOS Environment Lifestyle Endometriosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Muscogiuri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Barbara Altieri
    • 2
  • Cedric Annweiler
    • 3
    • 4
  • Giancarlo Balercia
    • 5
  • H. B. Pal
    • 6
  • Barbara J. Boucher
    • 7
  • John J. Cannell
    • 8
  • Carlo Foresta
    • 9
  • Martin R. Grübler
    • 10
    • 11
  • Kalliopi Kotsa
    • 12
  • Luca Mascitelli
    • 13
  • Winfried März
    • 14
    • 15
    • 16
  • Francesco Orio
    • 17
    • 18
  • Stefan Pilz
    • 11
    • 19
  • Giacomo Tirabassi
    • 5
  • Annamaria Colao
    • 20
  1. 1.Ios and Coleman Medicina Futura Medical CenterUniversity “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic DiseasesCatholic University of the Sacred HeartRomeItaly
  3. 3.Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Angers University Hospital, University Memory Clinic, UPRES EA 4638University of Angers, UNAMAngersFrance
  4. 4.Department of Medical Biophysics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research InstituteThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  5. 5.Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Umberto I HospitalPolytechnic University of MarcheAnconaItaly
  6. 6.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of DebrecenDebrecenHungary
  7. 7.The Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and DentistryQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  8. 8.Vitamin D CouncilSan Luis ObispoUSA
  9. 9.Department of Medicine, Operative Unit of Andrology and Medicine of Human ReproductionUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  10. 10.Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center BernBern University HospitalBernSwitzerland
  11. 11.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal MedicineMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  12. 12.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of MedicineAHEPA University HospitalThessaloníkiGreece
  13. 13.Comando Brigata Alpina “Julia”/Multinational Land Force, Medical ServiceUdineItaly
  14. 14.Medical Clinic V (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Mannheim Medical FacultyUniversity of HeidelbergMannheimGermany
  15. 15.Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory DiagnosticsMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  16. 16.Synlab AcademySynlab Holding Germany GmbHMannheim, AugsburgGermany
  17. 17.Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Fertility Techniques StructureUniversity Hospital “S. Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona”SalernoItaly
  18. 18.Department of Sports Science and Wellness“Parthenope” University NaplesNaplesItaly
  19. 19.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care ResearchVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  20. 20.Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryUniversity “Federico II”NaplesItaly

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