Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 89, Issue 10, pp 1669–1680 | Cite as

Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment: evidence from human data provided by redox proteomics

Review Article


Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with many known pathological features, yet there is still much debate into the exact cause and mechanisms for progression of this degenerative disorder. The amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress hypothesis postulates that it is the oligomeric Aβ that inserts into membrane systems to initiate much of the oxidative stress observed in brain during the progression of the disease. In order to study the effects of oxidative stress on tissue from patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we have developed a method called redox proteomics that identifies specific brain proteins found to be selectively oxidized. Here, we discuss experimental findings of oxidatively modified proteins involved in three key cellular processes implicated in the pathogenesis of AD progression: energy metabolism, cell signaling and neurotransmission, as well as the proteasomal degradation pathways and antioxidant response systems. These proteomics studies conducted by our laboratory and others in the field shed light on the molecular changes imposed on the cells of AD and MCI brain, through the deregulated increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress inflicted by Aβ and mitochondrial dysfunction.


Alzheimer disease Mild cognitive impairment Amyloid-beta Reactive oxygen species Redox proteomics 





Alzheimer disease



Collapsin response mediator protein-2


Early-onset Alzheimer disease


Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry


Familial Alzheimer disease






Inferior parietal lobule


Late-onset Alzheimer disease


Mild cognitive impairment


Neurofibrillary tangle


Protein carbonyl


Preclinical Alzheimer disease


Positron emission tomography


Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1


Postmortem interval


Reactive nitrogen species


Reactive oxygen species


Senile plaque


Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Sanders-Brown Center on AgingUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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