Bisphenol A modulates colorectal cancer protein profile and promotes the metastasis via induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions
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More and more evidences indicate that endocrine disruptor chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) can act as carcinogens and enhance susceptibility to tumorigenesis. Although the gut is in direct contact with orally ingested BPA, effects of BPA on occurrence and development of colorectal cancer remain an unexplored endpoint. Colorectal cancer SW480 cells treated with nanomolar (10−8 M) or greater (10−5 M) concentrations of BPA were compared with responses of a control group. Proteomic study revealed that more than 56 proteins were modulated following exposure to BPA, which are relevant to structure, motility and proliferation of cells, production of ATP, oxidative stress, and protein metabolism. Further studies revealed that BPA increased migration and invasion and triggered transformations from epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) of colorectal cancer cells, which was characterized by acquiring mesenchymal spindle-like morphology and increasing the expression of N-cadherin with a concomitant decrease of E-cadherin. Accordingly, BPA treatment increased the expression of transcription factor Snail. Furthermore, signal AKT/GSK-3β-mediated stabilization of Snail is involved during BPA-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Our study first demonstrated that the xenoestrogen BPA at nanomolar and greater concentrations modulates the protein profiles and promotes the metastasis of colorectal cancer cells via induction of EMT.
KeywordsColorectal cancer BPA EMT Proteomic Tumorigenesis Migration
Endocrine disruptor chemicals
Epithelial to mesenchymal transitions
Estrogen receptor α/β
Fetal bovine serum
G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor
Heat-shock protein 27
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31101071 and 81302317), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Sun Yat-sen University) (No. 12ykpy09), the Opening Project of Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation (No. 2011A060901014-007), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, No. 2011CB9358003), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2012B031500005), and the Seed Collaborative Research Fund from the State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution (SCRF0003).
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