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The Ca2+-calmodulin-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling pathway is involved in oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptosis in isolated rat hepatocytes

  • Molecular Toxicology
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Abstract

Oxidative stress (OS) is a common event in most hepatopathies, leading to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) formation and further exacerbation of both OS from mitochondrial origin and cell death. Intracellular Ca2+ increase plays a permissive role in these events, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly known. We examined in primary cultured rat hepatocytes whether the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway is involved in this process, by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) as a pro-oxidant, model compound. tBOOH (500 μM, 15 min) induced MPTP formation, as assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane depolarization as a surrogate marker, and increased lipid peroxidation in a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive manner, revealing the involvement of MPTPs in tBOOH-induced radical oxygen species (ROS) formation. Intracellular Ca2+ sequestration with BAPTA/AM, CaM blockage with W7 or trifluoperazine, and CaMKII inhibition with KN-62 all fully prevented tBOOH-induced MPTP opening and reduced tBOOH-induced lipid peroxidation to a similar extent to CsA, suggesting that Ca2+/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway fully mediates MPTP-mediated mitochondrial ROS generation. tBOOH-induced apoptosis, as shown by flow cytometry of annexin V/propidium iodide, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and increase in the Bax-to-Bcl-xL ratio, and the Ca2+/CaM/CaMKII signaling antagonists fully prevented these effects. Intramitochondrial CaM and CaMKII were partially involved in tBOOH-induced MPTP formation, since W7 and KN-62 both attenuated the tBOOH-induced, MPTP-mediated swelling of isolated mitochondria. We concluded that Ca2+/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway is a key mediator of OS-induced MPTP formation and the subsequent exacerbation of OS from mitochondrial origin and apoptotic cell death.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2010-0992), and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 112-200801-00691). We thank Justina Elena Ochoa, Diego Taborda, and Mara Ojeda for their valuable technical assistance.

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Correspondence to Marcelo G. Roma.

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Toledo, F.D., Pérez, L.M., Basiglio, C.L. et al. The Ca2+-calmodulin-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling pathway is involved in oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Toxicol 88, 1695–1709 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1219-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1219-5

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