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Secreted in Xylem (SIX) genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) unravels the potential biomarkers for early detection of Fusarium wilt disease

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Abstract

Secreted in Xylem (SIX) are small effector proteins released by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) into the plant’s xylem sap disrupting the host’s defence responses causing Fusarium wilt disease resulting in a significant decline in banana crop yields and economic losses. Notably, different races of Foc possess unique sets of SIX genes responsible for their virulence, however, these genes remain underutilized, despite their potential as biomarkers for early disease detection. Herein, we identified seven SIX genes i.e. SIX1, SIX2, SIX4, SIX6, SIX8a, SIX9a and SIX13 present in Foc Tropical Race 4 (FocTR4), while only SIX9b in Foc Race 1 (Foc1). Analysis of SIX gene expression in infected banana roots revealed differential patterns during infection providing valuable insights into host–pathogen interactions, virulence level, and early detection time points. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of virulent Foc1_C2HIR and FocTR4_C1HIR isolates yielded informative genomic insights. Hence, these discoveries contribute to our comprehension of potential disease control targets in these plants, as well as enhancing plant diagnostics and breeding programs.

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Data availability

The whole genome of Foc1_C2HIR and FocTR4_C1HIR has been submitted to NCBI Genbank database under the Biosample accession number SAMN37320067 and SAMN37320068.

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Acknowledgements

The authors jointly acknowledge the Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and the Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture (CEBAR), Universiti of Malaya, Malaysia. We also acknowledge the Universiti Malaya’s research council for the publication support.

Funding

This study was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (Grant No.: FP058-2018A), Geran Penyelidikan Fakulti by the Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya (Grant No.: GPF042B-2020) and Research University grant from Universiti Malaya (Grant No.: RU004A-2020).

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Conceptualization: KK, SNAM and YMY. Writing and original draft preparation: KK. Writing-Review & Editing: KK, SNAM, NAR, CKO and YMY. Visualization: KK, SNAM and YMY. Supervision: NAR, CKO and YMY. Funding acquisition: SNAM and YMY. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Yusmin Mohd-Yusuf.

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Kaliapan, K., Mazlin, S.N.A., Chua, K. et al. Secreted in Xylem (SIX) genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) unravels the potential biomarkers for early detection of Fusarium wilt disease. Arch Microbiol 206, 271 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-024-03996-4

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