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Biofilm inhibition/eradication: exploring strategies and confronting challenges in combatting biofilm

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Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms enclosed in a self-produced extracellular matrix, posing a significant threat to different sectors, including healthcare and industry. This review provides an overview of the challenges faced due to biofilm formation and different novel strategies that can combat biofilm formation. Bacteria inside the biofilm exhibit increased resistance against different antimicrobial agents, including conventional antibiotics, which can lead to severe problems in livestock and animals, including humans. In addition, biofilm formation also imposes heavy economic pressure on industries. Hence it becomes necessary to explore newer alternatives to eradicate biofilms effectively without applying selection pressure on the bacteria. Excessive usage of antibiotics may also lead to an increase in the number of resistant strains as bacteria employ an advanced antimicrobial resistance mechanism. This review provides insight into multifaceted technologies like quorum sensing inhibition, enzymes, antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophage, phytocompounds, and nanotechnology to neutralize biofilms without developing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Furthermore, it will pave the way for developing newer therapeutic agents to deal with biofilms more efficiently.

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Antimicrobial resistance


Extracellular polymeric substance




Quorum sensing


N-acyl-homoserine lactone


Biochemical oxygen demand


Polysaccharide intercellular adhesion


Poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG)


Extracellular DNA


Biofilm associated protein


Pseudomonas quinolone signal


Essential oils


Minimum inhibitory concentration


Polysaccharide lyase


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Authors want to thank MHRD, Government of India for funding and MNNIT Allahabad for providing research facilities


This research was funded by MHRD, Government of India.

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Conceptualization, VA and AS; writing original draft, AS, NV, VK, PA; review and editing, VA. All authors have read the manuscript and have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Vishnu Agarwal.

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Communicated by Yusuf Akhter.

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Srivastava, A., Verma, N., Kumar, V. et al. Biofilm inhibition/eradication: exploring strategies and confronting challenges in combatting biofilm. Arch Microbiol 206, 212 (2024).

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