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Biofilm inhibition/eradication: exploring strategies and confronting challenges in combatting biofilm

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Abstract

Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms enclosed in a self-produced extracellular matrix, posing a significant threat to different sectors, including healthcare and industry. This review provides an overview of the challenges faced due to biofilm formation and different novel strategies that can combat biofilm formation. Bacteria inside the biofilm exhibit increased resistance against different antimicrobial agents, including conventional antibiotics, which can lead to severe problems in livestock and animals, including humans. In addition, biofilm formation also imposes heavy economic pressure on industries. Hence it becomes necessary to explore newer alternatives to eradicate biofilms effectively without applying selection pressure on the bacteria. Excessive usage of antibiotics may also lead to an increase in the number of resistant strains as bacteria employ an advanced antimicrobial resistance mechanism. This review provides insight into multifaceted technologies like quorum sensing inhibition, enzymes, antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophage, phytocompounds, and nanotechnology to neutralize biofilms without developing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Furthermore, it will pave the way for developing newer therapeutic agents to deal with biofilms more efficiently.

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No datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

Abbreviations

AMR:

Antimicrobial resistance

EPS:

Extracellular polymeric substance

UV:

Ultraviolet

QS:

Quorum sensing

AHL:

N-acyl-homoserine lactone

BOD:

Biochemical oxygen demand

PIA:

Polysaccharide intercellular adhesion

PNAG:

Poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG)

eDNA:

Extracellular DNA

BAP:

Biofilm associated protein

PQS:

Pseudomonas quinolone signal

EOs:

Essential oils

MIC:

Minimum inhibitory concentration

PL:

Polysaccharide lyase

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Acknowledgements

Authors want to thank MHRD, Government of India for funding and MNNIT Allahabad for providing research facilities

Funding

This research was funded by MHRD, Government of India.

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Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization, VA and AS; writing original draft, AS, NV, VK, PA; review and editing, VA. All authors have read the manuscript and have no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vishnu Agarwal.

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The authors certify that they have no known competing financial interest or personal relationships in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript.

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The current work does not involve any human subject or any trial or human.

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All the authors agree to publish the manuscript.

Additional information

Communicated by Yusuf Akhter.

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Srivastava, A., Verma, N., Kumar, V. et al. Biofilm inhibition/eradication: exploring strategies and confronting challenges in combatting biofilm. Arch Microbiol 206, 212 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-024-03938-0

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