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Strategies adopted by Salmonella to survive in host: a review

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Salmonella, a Gram-negative bacterium that infects humans and animals, causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to severe systemic infections. Here, we discuss various strategies used by Salmonella against host cell defenses. Epithelial cell invasion largely depends on a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1-encoded type 3 secretion system, a molecular syringe for injecting effector proteins directly into host cells. The internalization of Salmonella into macrophages is primarily driven by phagocytosis. After entering the host cell cytoplasm, Salmonella releases many effectors to achieve intracellular survival and replication using several secretion systems, primarily an SPI-2-encoded type 3 secretion system. Salmonella-containing vacuoles protect Salmonella from contacting bactericidal substances in epithelial cells and macrophages. Salmonella modulates the immunity, metabolism, cell cycle, and viability of host cells to expand its survival in the host, and the intracellular environment of Salmonella-infected cells promotes its virulence. This review provides insights into how Salmonella subverts host cell defenses for survival.

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The authors are thankful for the suggestions provided by Dr. Lingyan Jiang from Nankai University for the revision of the manuscript.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 82170606] and the Basic Research Project of Key Scientific Research Projects of Universities in Henan Province [grant number 23ZX006].

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W.L. wrote and revised the manuscript. Q.R. drew the figures and made revisions for the manuscript. T.N., Y.Z., Z.S., and R.L. collected the references and verified the points presented in the manuscript. Z.L. and S.L. conceived and revised the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Zhongjie Li or Sanqiang Li.

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Communicated by Yusuf Akhter.

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Li, W., Ren, Q., Ni, T. et al. Strategies adopted by Salmonella to survive in host: a review. Arch Microbiol 205, 362 (2023).

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