A total of 220 birds of age ranging from 3 to 14 weeks old were collected from several backyards and different farms in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, and surveyed for the presence of fowl cholera. Twenty Pasteurella multocida from chickens (15/145, 10%) and ducks (5/75, 6%) were bacteriologically isolated, and it was shown that the infection was significantly related to age and breed. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that all strains were type A (100%). Disk diffusion assay towards ten antimicrobials revealed high susceptibilities to amikacin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and neomycin with varying degrees. Doxycycline was effective at the lowest concentration (MIC 0.125–1 µg/ml). Multidrug resistance was detected with a percentage of 25%. Multidrug-resistant isolates (five isolates) were subjected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE). The results showed a variation in indices between different dilutions of the tested strains. The resulting pathogenicity indices showed significant differences (P < 0.05) according to the origin and dilution of the isolate. From the original inoculum to 10–4 dilutions, the mortality of inoculated embryos occurred within 1–2 days with pathological findings, including maceration and lesions on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). From dilutions ranging from 10–5 to 10–9, no death occurred until 7 days post-inoculation, but a variation in the lesions on CAM was observed. In conclusion, P. multocida serogroup A could be intensely pathogenic for mature chickens thus causing considerable economic losses, and PCR provides a suitable technique for early and rapid diagnosis of fowl cholera.
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The study was conducted with the permission of the National Lab for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) and in line with the guidelines of the committee.
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Shalaby, A.G., Bakry, N.R. & El-Demerdash, A.S. Virulence attitude estimation of Pasteurella multocida isolates in embryonated chicken eggs. Arch Microbiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02579-x
- Pasteurella multocida
- Chicken embryo
- Capsular typing
- Pathogenicity index
- Antimicrobial susceptibility