Haloechinothrix aidingensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from salt lake in Xinjiang province, north-west China


An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 98757T, was isolated from the hypersaline sediment of Aiding Lake in Xinjiang province, north-west China. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The substrate mycelium was well developed and fragmented. No spores were formed. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the cell-wall diamino acid. Xylose, galactose, ribose were the major whole-cell sugars. The phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unknown phospholipid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acid was iso-C16:0. The DNA G + C content was 69.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the genus Haloechinothrix. However, it differed from its closest relative, H. alba YIM 98757 T in many phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Moreover, the DNA–DNA and ANI relatedness values between the novel isolate and H. alba YIM 93221 T were 53.3% and 92.5%, respectively. Based on comparative analysis of polyphasic taxonomic data, strain YIM 98757 T represents a novel species of the genus Haloechinothrix, for which the name Haloechinothrix aidingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 98757T (= CGMCC 4.7627T = CCTCC AA 2020012).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1



Czapek’s agar

ISP 5:

Glycerol/asparagine agar

ISP 4:

Inorganic salts-starch agar


Nutrient agar


Oatmeal agar


Potato agar


Yeast extract-malt extract agar








Unknown phospholipid




Phosphotidylinositol dimannoside


  1. Collins MD, Jones D (1980) Lipids in the classification and identification of coryneform bacteria containing peptidoglycans based on 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. J Appl Bacteriol 48:459–470

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Collins MD, Pirouz T, Goodfellow M, Minnikin DE (1977) Distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria. J Gen Microbiol 100:221–230

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17:368–376

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Fitch WM (1971) Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Syst Zool 20:406–416

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Guan TW, Xia ZF, Tang SK, Wu N, Chen ZJ, Huang Y, Ruan JS, Li WJ, Zhang LL (2012) Amycolatopsis salitolerans sp. nov., a filamentous actinomycete isolated from a hypersaline habitat. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:23–27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hasegawa T, Takizawa M, Tanida S (1983) A rapid analysis for chemical grouping of aerobic actinomycetes. J Gen Appl Microbiol 29:319–322

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hayakawa M, Nomura S (1987) Humic acid-vitamin agar. A new medium for the selective isolation of soil actinomycetes. J Ferment Technol 65:501–509

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kelly KL (1964) Inter-Society Color Council – National Bureau of Standards Color Name Charts Illustrated with Centroid Colors. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  10. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Lechevalier MP, Lechevalier HA (1970) Chemical composition as a criterion in the classification of aerobic actinomycetes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 20:435–443

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Leifson E (1960) Atlas of Bacterial Flagellation. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  13. Meier-Kolthoff JP, Auch AF, Klenk HP, Göker M (2013) Genome sequence-based species delimitation with confidence intervals and improved distance functions. BMC Bioinf 14:60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Minnikin DE, Collins MD, Goodfellow M (1979) Fatty acid and polar lipid composition in the classification of Cellulomonas, Oerskovia and related taxa. J Appl Bacteriol 47:87–95

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Nouioui I, Carro L, García-López M, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Woyke T, Kyrpides NC, Pukall R, Klenk HP, Goodfellow M, Göker M (2018) Genome-based taxonomic classification of the phylum Actinobacteria. Front Microbiol 9:2007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Shirling EB, Gottlieb D (1966) Methods for characterization of Streptomyces species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 16:313–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Smibert RM, Krieg NR (1994) Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology. Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Wood WA, Krieg NR. Washington: American Society for Microbiology, pp. 607–654.

  19. Stamatakis A (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30:1312–1313.

  20. Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML web servers. Syst Biol 57:758–771

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Tamaoka J, Katayama-Fujimura Y, Kuraishi H (1983) Analysis of bacterial menaquinone mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography. J Appl Bacteriol 54:31–36

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Tang SK, Wang Y, Chen Y, Lou K, Cao LL, Xu LH, Li WJ (2009) Zhihengliuella alba sp. nov., and emended description of the genus Zhihengliuella. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:2025–2032

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Tang SK, Wang Y, Guan TW, Lee JC, Kim CJ, Li WJ (2010b) Amycolatopsis halophila sp. nov., a halophilic actinomycete isolated from a salt lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:1073–1078

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Tang SK, Wang Y, Zhang H, Lee JC, Lou K, Kim CJ, Li WJ (2010) Haloechinothrix alba gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, filamentous actinomycete of the suborder Pseudonocardineae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60(Pt 9):2154–2158.

  25. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Ueda J, Yamamoto SC, Kurosawa N (2013) Paenibacillus thermoaerophilus sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from compost. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:3330–3335

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Wayne LG, Brenner DJ, Colwell RR, Grimont PAD, Kandler O, Krichevsky MI, Moore LH, Moore WEC, Murray RGE, Stackebrandt E, Starr MP, Trüper HG (1987) International committee on systematic bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Williams ST, Goodfellow M, Alderson G (1989) Genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici 1943, 339AL. In: Williams ST, Sharpe ME, Holt JG, eds. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, pp. 2452–2492.

  29. Xu P, Li WJ, Tang SK, Zhang YQ, Chen GZ, Chen HH, Xu LH, Jiang CL (2005) Naxibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family ‘Oxalobacteraceae’ isolated from China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1149–1153

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Yang L, Huang HW, Wang Y, Kou YR, Yin M, Li Y, Wang XQ, Zhao GF, Zhu WY, Tang SK (2020) Paenibacillus turpanensis sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake of Turpan city in Xinjiang province, north‑west China. Archiv Microbiol. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02003-w.

  31. Yoon SH, Ha SM, Kwon S, Lim J, KimY SH, Chun J (2017) Introducing EzBioCloud: a taxonomically united database 16S rRNA and whole genome assemblies. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67:1613–1617

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was performed with support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31760003, 31500011, 31800001 and 31860017), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2017A030310206), the South and Southeast Asia Cooperation Base on Microbiological Resource Prevention and Utilization (2018IA100) and Chunhui Project for Ministry of Education of China (Project No. 191649) and Major Science and Technology Projects of Yunnan Province (Digitalization, development and application of biotic resource, 202002AA100007).


The NCBI GenBank accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain YIM 98757T is MN251022. The draft whole genome sequence for YIM 98757T has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under accession number GCA_013450155.1.

Author information




LY and YRK carried out the data analysis, part of chemical classification, and wrote the manuscript. TWG and MY performed the polyphasic taxonomy except chemical classification. BBL provided the soil samples. YJS prepared the experiments and isolated the novel strain. WYZ and SKT designed the separation medium and directed the classification and takes full responsibility for the final submission. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the paper.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Wen-Yong Zhu or Shu-Kun Tang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by Erko Stackebrandt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yang, L., Kou, YR., Guan, TW. et al. Haloechinothrix aidingensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from salt lake in Xinjiang province, north-west China. Arch Microbiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02184-y

Download citation


  • Haloechinothrix aidingensis
  • sp. nov.
  • Salt lake
  • Polyphasic taxonomy