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Pharmacological properties of marine macroalgae-associated heterotrophic bacteria

Abstract

The rich diversity of marine macroalgae and their associated bacterial flora represent a potential reservoir of bioactive compounds with valuable biotechnological and pharmaceutical use. Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the intertidal macroalgae were isolated and evaluated for their pharmacological properties using various in vitro models. Among 148 cultivable isolates, more than 50% were dominated by γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, wherein 53 of them showed consistent antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of clinically significant pathogens. The bacteria were characterized by extensive microbiological, molecular and chemical identification tools. The heterotrophs Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 and Shewanella algae MTCC 12715 isolated from a red marine macroalga Hypnea valentiae exhibited potential anti-infective properties against multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25–12.5 µg/mL). The organic extract of B. amyloliquefaciens displayed significantly greater antioxidative properties (IC90 < 1 mg/mL) and the activities showed considerable positive correlation (r2 > 0.8, P < 0.05) with the inhibitory activities against angiotensin converting enzyme-I, pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, which were associated with hypertension, inflammation, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. The applications of nuclear magnetic resonance-based fingerprinting to analyze the characteristic signals in the solvent extracts and to correlate them with the pharmaceutical properties were underlined. The heterotrophic bacterium B. amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 might, therefore, serve as a potential therapeutic candidate to develop products with wide pharmaceutical applications.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by funding under Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (Grant No. 040/FSHP-LSS/2014/KSCSTE). The authors are thankful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi for providing facilities to carry out the work. The authors gratefully thank the Director, National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health of Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin to provide us with the pathogenic organisms. The authors thank the Director, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute and Dean, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Lakeside Campus, Cochin University of Science and Technology for support. Thanks are due to the Head, Marine Biotechnology Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute for facilitating the research activity.

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Correspondence to Kajal Chakraborty.

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Communicated by Erko Stackebrandt.

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Kizhakkekalam, V.K., Chakraborty, K. Pharmacological properties of marine macroalgae-associated heterotrophic bacteria. Arch Microbiol 201, 505–518 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-018-1592-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-018-1592-1

Keyword

  • Intertidal marine macroalgae
  • Heterotrophic bacteria
  • Firmicutes
  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716
  • Antibacterial
  • Pharmacological properties
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance-based fingerprinting