Prodigiosin pigment of Serratia marcescens is associated with increased biomass production
- 30 Downloads
Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic bacterium and opportunistic pathogen which produces the red pigment prodigiosin. We employed both batch culture and chemostat growth methods to investigate prodigiosin function in the producing organism. Pigmentation correlated with an increased rate of ATP production during population lag phase. Results with a lacZ transcriptional fusion to the prodigiosin (pig) biosynthetic operon revealed that operon transcription is activated by low cellular levels of ATP at high cell density. Furthermore, these data enabled estimation of the ATP per cell minimum value at which the operon is induced. Pigmented cells were found to accumulate ATP more rapidly and to multiply more quickly than non-pigmented cells during the high density growth phase. Finally, results with both batch and chemostat culture revealed that pigmented cells grow to approximately twice the biomass yield as non-pigmented S. marcescens bacteria. Prodigiosin production may, therefore, provide a growth advantage at ambient temperatures.
KeywordsSerratia marcescens Prodigiosin ATP
The authors wish to thank the following persons for valuable technical support: Kara Lehner, Mallory O’Connor Anderson, Joshua Davidson, Nathan Doehring, James Hause, Leah Sawyer, Forrest Wentworth, Eric York, Zachary Tatom and Sherilyn Gitchel. PLH was supported by the Research Council of Auburn University Montgomery through the equipment and research Grant-in-aid programs as well as by the AUM Biology Department. RMQS was supported in part by the Eye and Ear Foundation of Pittsburgh, unrestricted funds to prevent blindness, and the National Institutes of Health Grants EY027331 and EY08098.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors know of no conflict of interest in the performance of or reporting of this work.
- Danevčič T, Vezjak MB, Tabor M, Zorec M, Stopar D (2016a) Prodigiosin induces autolysins in actively grown Bacillus subtilis cells. Front Microbiol 7:1–10Google Scholar
- Danevčič T, Vezjak MB, Zorec M, Stopar D (2016b) Prodigiosin—a multifaceted Escherichia coli antimicrobial agent. PLoS One 11:1–13Google Scholar
- Donachie W, Robinson AC (1987) Cell division: parameters and the process. In: Neidhardt FC (ed) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 1578–1593Google Scholar
- Fineran PC, Everson L, Slater H, Salmond GPC (2005a) A GntR family transcriptional regulator (PigT) controls gluconate-mediated repression and defines a new, independent pathway for regulation of the tripyrrole antibiotic, prodigiosin, in Serratia. Microbiology 151:3833–3845CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fineran PC, Slater H, Everson L, Hughes K, Salmond GPC (2005b) Biosynthesis of tripyrrole and β-lactam secondary metabolites in Serratia: integration of quorum sensing with multiple new regulatory components in the control of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotic production. Mol Microbiol 56:1495–1517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gristwood T, Fineran PC, Everson L, Salmond GPC (2008) PigZ, a TetR/AcrR family repressor, modulates secondary metabolism via the expression of a putative four-component resistance-nodulation-cell-division efflux pump, ZrpADBC in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. Mol Microbiol 69:418–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harris AKP, Williamson NR, Slater H, Cox A, Abbasi S, Foulds I, Simonsen HT, Leeper FJ, Salmond GPC (2004) The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation. Microbiology 150:3547–3560CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iguchi A, Nagaya Y, Pradel E, Ooka T, Ogura Y, Katsura K, Kurokawa K, Oshima K, Hattori M, Parkhill J, Sebaihia M, Coulthurst S, Gotoh N, Thomson NR, Ewbank JJ, Hayashi T (2014) Genome evolution and plasticity of Serratia marcescens, an important multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogen. Genome Biol Evol 6:2096–2110CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Neuhard J, Nygaard P (1987) Purines and pyrimidines. In: Neidhardt FC (ed) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 445–473Google Scholar
- Platt T, Müller-Hill B, Miller JH (1972) Experiment 48: assay of beta-galactosidase. In: Miller JH (ed) Experiments in molecular genetics. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, pp 352–355Google Scholar