An arsenate-reducing and alkane-metabolizing novel bacterium, Rhizobium arsenicireducens sp. nov., isolated from arsenic-rich groundwater
- 594 Downloads
A novel arsenic (As)-resistant, arsenate-respiring, alkane-metabolizing bacterium KAs 5-22T, isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal was characterized by physiological and genomic properties. Cells of strain KAs 5-22T were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, and facultative anaerobic. Growth occurred at optimum of pH 6.0–7.0, temperature 30 °C. 16S rRNA gene affiliated the strain KAs 5-22T to the genus Rhizobium showing maximum similarity (98.4 %) with the type strain of Rhizobium naphthalenivorans TSY03bT followed by (98.0 % similarity) Rhizobium selenitireducens B1T. The genomic G + C content was 59.4 mol%, and DNA–DNA relatedness with its closest phylogenetic neighbors was 50.2 %. Chemotaxonomy indicated UQ-10 as the major quinone; phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol as major polar lipids; C16:0, C17:0, 2-OH C10:0, 3-OH C16:0, and unresolved C18:1 ɷ7C/ɷ9C as predominant fatty acids. The cells were found to reduce O2, As5+, NO3 −, SO4 2− and Fe3+ as alternate electron acceptors. The strain’s ability to metabolize dodecane or other alkanes as sole carbon source using As5+ as terminal electron acceptor was supported by the presence of genes encoding benzyl succinate synthase (bssA like) and molybdopterin-binding site (mopB) of As5+ respiratory reductase (arrA). Differential phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic as well as physiological properties revealed that the strain KAs 5-22T is separated from its nearest recognized Rhizobium species. On the basis of the data presented, strain KAs 5-22T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium arsenicireducens sp. nov. is proposed as type strain (=LMG 28795T=MTCC 12115T).
KeywordsArsenic Groundwater Rhizobium arsenicireducens Arsenate reduction Hydrocarbon utilization
The work is financially supported by the grant from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Govt. of India, project number 38/1314/11/EMR II, and the fellowship to BM is provided by INSPIRE fellowship scheme of Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, fellowship number IF120832. Authors are thankful for the kind help of R. Lal (Professor, University of Delhi, North Campus, New Delhi, India) and D.K. Newman (Professor, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, U.S.A), for providing the type strains. The authors express gratitude to S. Marqués (Professor, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Department of Environmental Protection, Granada, Spain) and H. S. Gehlot (Professor, Tejpur University, India) for providing the primers of bssA-like gene and nodA gene, respectively. We also acknowledge Prof A. Oren and Prof A. C. Parte for suggesting species epithet and etymology of the strain. The GenBank accession numbers for 16S rRNA, molybdopterin-binding site of As5+ respiratory reductase (arrA) and putative benzyl succinate synthase (bssA like) gene are JX173993, KR340465, and KX011179, respectively.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Blum JS, Han S, Lanoil B, Saltikov C, Witte B, Tabita FR, Langley S, Beveridge TJ, Jahnke L, Oremland RS (2009) Ecophysiology of “Halarsenatibacter silvermanii” Strain SLAS-1T, gen. nov., sp. nov., a Facultative Chemoautotrophic Arsenate Respirer from Salt-Saturated Searles Lake, California. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1950–1960Google Scholar
- Cowan ST, Steel KJ (1965) Manual for the identification of medical bacteria. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Frank B (1889) U¨ ber die Pilzsymbiose der Leguminosen. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 7:332–346 (in German) Google Scholar
- Kazy SK, Sar P, Asthana RK, Singh SP (1999) Copper uptake and its compartmentalization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: chemical nature of cellular metal. W J Microbiol Biotechnol 15:599–605Google Scholar
- Mnasri B, Mrabet M, Laguerre G, Aouani ME, Mhamdi R (2007) Salt-tolerant rhizobia isolated from a Tunisian oasis that are highly effective for symbiotic N -fixation with Phaseolus vulgaris constitute a novel biovar (bv. mediterranense) of Sinorhizobium meliloti. Arch Microbiol 187:79–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paul D, Poddar S, Sar P (2014) Characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater of West Bengal. J Environ Sci Heal A 49:1481–1492Google Scholar
- Paul D, Kazy SK, Gupta AK, Pal T, Sar P (2015) Diversity, metabolic properties and arsenic mobilization potential of indigenous bacteria in arsenic contaminated groundwater of West Bengal, India. PLoS ONE 10:1–40Google Scholar
- Quan ZX, Bae HS, Baek JH, Chen WF, Im WT, Lee ST (2005) Rhizobium daejeonense sp. nov. isolated from a cyanide treatment bioreactor. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:2543–2549Google Scholar
- Ravenscroft P, McArthur JM, Hoque BA (2001) Geochemical and palaeohydrological controls on pollution of groundwater by arsenic. In: Chappell WR, Abernathy CO, Calderon R (eds) Arsenic exposure and health effects IV. Elsevier Science, Oxford, pp 53–78Google Scholar
- Saltikov CW, Cifuentes A, Venkateswaran K, Newman DK (2003) The ars Detoxification System Is Advantageous but Not Required for As(V) Respiration by the Genetically Tractable Shewanella Species Strain ANA-3. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2800–2809Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Rapid isolation of yeast DNA. In: Sambrook J, Russel DW (eds) Molecular cloning, a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp 631–632Google Scholar
- Smibert RM, Krieg NR (1994) Phenotypic characterization. In: Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Wood WA, Krieg NR (eds) Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 607–654Google Scholar
- Tighe SW, de Lajudie P, Dipietro K, Lindstro MK, Nick G, Jarvis BD (2000) Analysis of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic relationships of Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium species using the Sherlock Microbial Identification System. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:787–801CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wayne LG, Brenner DJ, Colwell RR, Grimont PAD, Kandler O, Krichevsky MI, Moore LH, Moore WEC, Murray RGE et al (1987) International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Young JM, Kuykendall ID, Martínez-Romero E, Kerr A, Sawada HA et al (2001) A revision of Rhizobium Frank 1889, with an emended description of the genus, and the inclusion of all species of Agrobacterium Conn 1942 and Allorhizobium undicola de Lajudie et al. 1998 as new combinations: Rhizobium radiobacter, R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola and R. vitis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:89–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar