Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Mangrovimonas xylaniphaga sp. nov. isolated from estuarine mangrove sediment of Matang Mangrove Forest, Malaysia


A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, yellow-orange-pigmented, gliding bacterium, designated as strain ST2L12T, was isolated from estuarine mangrove sediment from Matang Mangrove Forest, Perak, Malaysia. Strain ST2L12T grew at 15–39 °C, pH 6–8 and in 1–6 % (w/v) NaCl. This strain was able to degrade xylan and casein. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 95.3–92.8 % similarity to members of the genera Mangrovimonas, Meridianimaribacter, Sediminibacter, Gaetbulibacter and Hoppeia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. Respiratory quinone present was menaquinone-6 (MK-6), and the DNA G+C content was 38.3 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1, C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. Moreover, previous genome comparison study showed that the genome of ST2L12T is 1.4 times larger compared to its closest relative, Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis LYYY01T. Phenotypic, fatty acid, 16S rRNA gene sequence and previous genome data indicate that strain ST2L12T represents a novel species of the genus Mangrovimonas in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Mangrovimonas xylaniphaga sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mangrovimonas xylaniphaga is ST2L12T (=LMG 28914T=JCM 30880T).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1



High-nutrient artificial sea water medium


Low-nutrient artificial sea water medium


Thin-layer chromatography


High-performance liquid chromatography


Transmission electron microscope


  1. Bernardet J-F, Nakagawa Y, Holmes B (2002) Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Flavobacteriaceae and emended description of the family. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1049–1070

  2. Beveridge TJ (2001) Use of the Gram stain in microbiology. Biotech Histochem 76:111–118

  3. Bowman JP (2000) Description of Cellulophaga algicola sp. nov., isolated from the surfaces of Antarctic algae, and reclassification of Cytophaga uliginosa (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Reichenbach 1989 as Cellulophaga uliginosa comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1861–1868

  4. Bowman JP (2006) The marine clade of the family flavobacteriaceae: the genera Aequorivita, Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Croceibacter, Formosa, Gelidibacter, Gillisia, Maribacter, Mesonia, Muricauda, Polaribacter, Psychroflexus, Psychroserpens, Robiginitalea, Salegentibacter, Tenacibaculum, Ulvibacter, Vitellibacter and Zobellia. In: The prokaryotes. Springer, New York, pp 677–694

  5. Bowman JP, McCammon SA, Lewis T, Skerratt JH, Brown JL, Nichols DS, McMeekin TA (1998) Psychroflexus torquis gen. nov., sp. nov. a psychrophilic species from Antarctic sea ice, and reclassification of Flavobacterium gondwanense (Dobson et al. 1993) as Psychroflexus gondwanense gen. nov., comb. nov. Microbiology 144:1601–1609

  6. Chun J, Lee J-H, Jung Y, Kim M, Kim S, Kim BK, Lim Y-W (2007) EzTaxon: a web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2259–2261

  7. Cottrell MT, Kirchman DL (2000) Natural assemblages of marine proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster consuming low-and high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1692–1697

  8. Dinesh B, Lau N-S, Furusawa G, Kim S-W, Taylor TD, Foong SY, Shu-Chien AC (2016) Comparative genome analyses of novel Mangrovimonas-like strains isolated from estuarine mangrove sediments reveal xylan and arabinan utilization genes. Mar Genomics 25:115–121

  9. Fautz E, Reichenbach H (1980) A simple test for flexirubin-type pigments. FEMS Microbiol Lett 8:87–91

  10. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791

  11. Hameed A, Shahina M, Lai W-A, Lin S-Y, Liu Y-C, Hsu Y-H, Young C-C (2015) Hanstruepera neustonica gen. nov., sp. nov., a zeaxanthin-producing member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine water, and emendation of Sediminibacter furfurosus Khan et al. 2007 emend. Kwon et al. 2014, Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis Li et al. 2013, Antarcticimonas flava Yang et al. 2009 and Hoppeia youngheungensis Kwon et al. 2014. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65:336–345

  12. Jooste PJ, Britz TJ, Haast JD (1985) A numerical taxonomic study of Flavobacterium-Cytophaga strains from dairy sources. J Appl Bacteriol 59:311–323

  13. Kämpfer P, Kroppenstedt RM (1996) Numerical analysis of fatty acid patterns of coryneform bacteria and related taxa. Can J Microbiol 42:989–1005

  14. Kim O-S et al (2012) Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:716–721

  15. Kim M, Oh H-S, Park S-C, Chun J (2014) Towards a taxonomic coherence between average nucleotide identity and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity for species demarcation of prokaryotes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64:346–351

  16. Kuykendall LD, Roy MA, O’Neill JJ, Devine TE (1988) Fatty acids, antibiotic resistance, and deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 38:358–361

  17. Li Y et al (2013) Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from mangrove sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:2043–2048

  18. Miller LT (1982) Single derivatization method for routine analysis of bacterial whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters, including hydroxy acids. J Clin Microbiol 16:584–586

  19. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425

  20. Stackebrandt E, Goebel BM (1994) Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:846–849

  21. Thompson JD, Gibson T, Higgins DG (2002) Multiple sequence alignment using ClustalW and ClustalX. Curr Protoc Bioinform Chapter 2: Unit 2.3. doi:10.1002/0471250953.bi0203s00.

  22. Tindall BJ (1990a) A comparative study of the lipid composition of Halobacterium saccharovorum from various sources. Syst Appl Microbiol 13:128–130

  23. Tindall BJ (1990b) Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusprofundi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66:199–202

  24. Tully BJ, Sachdeva R, Heidelberg KB, Heidelberg JF (2014) Comparative genomics of planktonic Flavobacteriaceae from the Gulf of Maine using metagenomic data. Microbiome 2:34

Download references


This study was supported by the Research University (RU) mangrove project Grant (1001/PCCB/870009) provided by Universiti Sains Malaysia. We thank Dr. S. Y. Foong for providing guidance during sampling and G. Priya for assisting in isolation of strain ST2L12T. G. Furusawa gratefully acknowledges the postdoctoral fellowships granted by Universiti Sains Malaysia. B. Dinesh also acknowledges the financial support provided by the MyBrain (MyMasters) scholarship supported by the Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE).

Author information

Correspondence to Go Furusawa.

Additional information

Communicated by Erko Stackebrandt.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 55 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dinesh, B., Furusawa, G. & Amirul, A.A. Mangrovimonas xylaniphaga sp. nov. isolated from estuarine mangrove sediment of Matang Mangrove Forest, Malaysia. Arch Microbiol 199, 63–67 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-016-1275-8

Download citation


  • Mangrovimonas
  • Xylan
  • Mangrove sediment
  • Matang