Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 196, Issue 6, pp 411–421 | Cite as

Analysis of proteomic changes in colored mutants of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma)

  • Alejandra Barbachano-Torres
  • Lina M. Castelblanco-Matiz
  • Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia
  • Carlos M. Cerda-García-Rojas
  • Luis M. Salgado
  • César M. Flores-Ortiz
  • Teresa Ponce-NoyolaEmail author
Original Paper


The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin as its most prevalent xanthophyll derivative. Comparisons between the protein profiles of mutant lines of this yeast can provide insight into the carotenogenic pathway. Differently colored mutants (red, orange, pink, yellow, and white) were obtained from this yeast species, and their protein profiles were determined using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Individual proteins differentially expressed were identified using mass spectrometry. The red mutants hyperproduced total carotenoids (mainly astaxanthin), while in white and orange mutants, mutagenesis affected the phytoene dehydrogenase activity as indicated by the accumulation of phytoene. Inactivation of astaxanthin synthase after the mutagenic treatment was evident in β-carotene accumulating mutants. Differences in the proteomic profiles of wild-type X. dendrorhous and its colored mutants were demonstrated using 2DE. Of the total number of spots detected in each gel (297–417), 128 proteins were present in all strains. The red mutant showed the greatest number of matches with respect to the wild type (305 spots), while the white and yellow mutants, which had reduced concentrations of total carotenoids, presented the highest correlation coefficient (0.6) between each other. A number of differentially expressed proteins were sequenced, indicating that tricarboxylic acid cycle and stress response proteins are closely related to the carotenogenic process.


Carotenoid biosynthesis Proteomic profile Secondary metabolism Stress response Tricarboxylic acid cycle 



We thank Professors E. Cerdá-Olmedo and J. Ávalos and their working groups from the Genetic Department at Seville University for their technical support in mutant isolation and characterization. A Barbachano-Torres and LM Castelblanco-Matiz thank CONACYT-México for doctoral (172824 and 219320, respectively) fellowships.

Supplementary material

203_2014_979_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (325 kb)
Fig. 1 Survival of X. dendrorhous after its exposition to several NTG concentrations and exposition time: □15 min, ♦30 min (TIFF 324 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandra Barbachano-Torres
    • 1
  • Lina M. Castelblanco-Matiz
    • 1
  • Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia
    • 1
  • Carlos M. Cerda-García-Rojas
    • 2
  • Luis M. Salgado
    • 3
  • César M. Flores-Ortiz
    • 4
  • Teresa Ponce-Noyola
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and BioengineeringCINVESTAV-IPNMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryCINVESTAV-IPNMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.CICATA-QroInstituto Politécnico NacionalMexico CityMexico
  4. 4.FES-Iztacala UNAMMexico CityMexico

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