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Distribution network electric vehicle hosting capacity enhancement using an optimal power flow formulation


This paper presents a method based on an optimal power flow (OPF) procedure to determine the maximum Hosting Capacity (HC) of Electric Vehicles (EV) that can be supported by a distribution network. With a focus on the injection control of reactive power, it is possible to maximize the penetration of EV. The presented method is based on linearized power flow equations, allowing a significant reduction in the computational processing times. Two comparisons are presented. The first one is between a nonlinear and a linear OPF method. Second one, it is comparative analysis between legacy iterative (non-optimized) method of HC and the proposed method. The method is applied on the IEEE 13 node test feeder circuit showing its effectiveness and acceptable performance. Results demonstrate that the implemented method enhances the HC measured against a legacy HC method and decrease the computational time measures against nonlinear optimization methods.

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Fig. 1

Adapted from [6]

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L :

System lines

B :

System buses

\(L_i\) :

Lines connected to the bus i

\(B_i\) :

Buses for connection to electric vehicles

\(g_{ij}\) :

Conductance on the line ij

\(b_{ij}\) :

Susceptance on the line ij

\(PL_{ij}\) :

Active power flow from node i to node j

\(QL_{ij}\) :

Reactive power flow from node i to node j

\(\varDelta \hat{v}_i \) :

Approximation of the deviation in the voltage magnitude in system without losses

\(P_{G_0}\) :

Active power in interconnection point with the sub-transmission system

\(Q_{G_0}\) :

Reactive power in interconnection point with the sub-transmission system

\(PL_{ij}^{Max}\) :

Maximum active power flow from node i to node j

\(QL_{ij}^{Max}\) :

Maximum reactive power flow from node i to node j

\(v_{i}^{Max}\) :

Maximum voltage magnitude in the node i

\(v_{i}^{Min}\) :

Minimum voltage magnitude in the node i

\(v_{i}\) :

Voltage magnitude in the node i

\(\varDelta v_{i}\) :

Deviation in the voltage magnitude in the node i

\(\theta _{i}\) :

Voltage angle in the node i

\(\varDelta \theta _{i}\) :

Deviation in the voltage angle in the node i

\(P_{i}\) :

Active power injected into the node i

\(Q_{i}\) :

Reactive power injected into the node i


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Correspondence to A. E. Avila-Rojas.

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Avila-Rojas, A.E., De Oliveira-De Jesus, P.M. & Alvarez, M. Distribution network electric vehicle hosting capacity enhancement using an optimal power flow formulation. Electr Eng 104, 1337–1348 (2022).

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  • Hosting capacity
  • Electric vehicle integration
  • Radial distribution network
  • Optimal power flow
  • Linear power flow
  • Overvoltage
  • Undervoltage