Analysis of faults in active distribution network with and without synchronous generator using instantaneous symmetrical components in time domain

  • Vladica Mijailović
  • Dragan Ćetenović
  • Aleksandar Ranković
  • Predrag Petrović
  • Dimitrije Rozgić
Original Paper
  • 74 Downloads

Abstract

The paper demonstrates the application of instantaneous symmetrical components method for the analytical calculation of all types of short-circuit currents in faulted distribution feeder with and without three-phase synchronous distributed generation (DG) connected. In active distribution systems, time-domain short-circuit current analysis is required in the processes of protective devices coordination and fault localization. In terms of the impact on the fault current, synchronous generator is the most critical DG type. The method enables encompassing initial conditions (load currents and voltages) before the fault occurs, critical conditions at the moment of fault occurrence, shunt parameters of network elements and the degree of voltage unbalance present in the feeder. Also, the procedure that we propose enables calculation of short-circuit current when the fault arc resistance cannot be neglected. Comparison with results of the fault current calculations based on the IEC methodology was performed through simulation tests and results.

Keywords

Short-circuit current Active distribution network Symmetrical components Time domain Synchronous distributed generator 

List of symbols

t

Time

\(U_i ({i=a,b,c})\)

The root-mean-square (rms) value of phase i voltage waveform

\(\alpha _0\)

Initial pre-fault voltage angle (the phase angle determining the magnitude of the three-phase voltages at \(t=0)\); \(\omega =2\cdot \pi \cdot f_n \), \(T=1/{f_n },\;f_n =50\,\hbox {Hz};\)

\(U_{ns} ,\;S_s^{''} ,\;T_{as}\)

Supplying network parameters (nominal voltage, sub-transient short-circuit power, short-circuit time constant, respectively)

\(U_{nG} ,\;S_{nG} ,\;x_{nG}^{''} ,\;T_{aG}\)

Distributed generator parameters

\(S_{nT} ,\;m_T ,\;x_T ,\;r_T\)

Distribution transformer parameters

R

Resistance

L

Inductance

C

Capacitance

d

Distribution feeder length

F(s)

Laplace transformation of a function f(t)

\(u_{f,x} (t)\)

Instantaneous voltage of x-sequence at the point of failure, \(x=\{{p,\;n,\;0}\}\)

pn and 0

Subscripts (denoting positive, negative and zero sequences, respectively)

\(u_a (t)\), \(u_b (t)\), \(u_c (t)\)

Instantaneous voltage of phase a, b and c, respectively

\(e_{q,x} (t)\)

Instantaneous voltage of x-sequence, \(q=\{ {s,\;\mathrm{DG}}\}\), \(x=\{ {p,\;n,\;0} \}\)

Subscript s

Supplying network

Subscript \(\mathrm{DG}\)

Serial connection of distributed generator and distribution transformer

\(i_{v,x} (t)\)

x-sequence of the current flowing through the point of fault

\(i_{\mathrm{DG},x} (t)\)

x-sequence of the current flowing from DG

\(i_{k,x} (t)\)

x-sequence of the current flowing from the supplying network

\(I_{k,p} (0), I_{\mathrm{DG},p} (0)\)

Initial values of the currents \(i_{k,p} (t)\), \(i_{\mathrm{DG},p} (t)\), respectively

\(u_{C1,x} (t), u_{C2,x} (t)\)

Instantaneous voltage of x-sequence across shunt capacitance \(C_1 \) and \(C_2 \), respectively

\(U_{c1,p} (0), U_{c2,p} (0)\)

Initial values of the voltages \(u_{c1,p} (t)\), \(u_{c2,p} (t)\), respectively

\(i_{C1,x} (t), i_{C2,x} (t)x\)

x-sequence of the current flowing through shunt capacitance \(C_1 \) and \(C_2 \), respectively

\(K_{i,x} (s)\)

Functional coefficient of x-sequence in Laplace domain, \(i=\{ 1,2,3,4,5,6 \}\)

\(\underline{Z}_{\mathrm{ground}}\)

Complex value of grounding impedance

\(r_{v,x}\)

Serial resistance of x-sequence per feeder unit length

\(l_{v,x}\)

Serial inductance of x-sequence per feeder unit length

\(c_{v,x}\)

Shunt capacitance of x-sequence per feeder unit length

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is the part of the Project No. III-42009 financed by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia. The authors hereby express their sincere gratitude for the support.

References

  1. 1.
    Rosolowski E, Michalik M (1994) Fast identification of symmetrical components by use of a state observer. IEE Proc Gener Transm Distrib 141(6):617–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paap GC (2000) Symmetrical components in the time domain and their application to power network calculations. IEEE Trans Power Syst 15(2):522–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tenti P, Willems JL, Mattaveli P, Tedeschi E (2007) Generalized symmetrical components for periodic non-sinusoidal three-phase signals. Electr Power Qual Util 13(1):9–15Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leva S (2009) Power network asymmetrical faults analysis using instantaneous symmetrical components. J Electromagn Anal Appl 1:205–2013Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liao H, Milanovic JV (2017) Methodology for the analysis of voltage unbalance in networks with single-phase distributed generation. IET Gener Transm Distrib 11(2):550–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abdel-Akher M, Mohamed NK (2010) Fault analysis of multiphase distribution systems using symmetrical components. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 25(4):2931–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gandelli A, Leva S, Morando AP (2000) Topological considerations on the symmetrical components transformation. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I Fundam Theory Appl 47(8):1202–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jabr RA, Džafic I (2014) A Fortescue approach for real-time short circuit computation in multiphase distribution networks. IEEE Trans Power Syst 30(6):3276–3285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strezoski LV, Prica M (2016) Real-time short-circuit analysis of active distribution systems. In: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE power and energy conference (PECI), 19–20 Feb 2016, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Muljadi E, Gevorgian V (2011) Short-circuit modeling of a wind power plant. In: Proceedings of 2011 IEEE power and energy society general meeting Detroit, MI, 24–29 July 2011, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Walling RA, Reichard ML (2009) Short circuit behavior of wind turbine generators. In: Proceedings of 2009 62nd IEEE annual conference for protective relay engineers, College Station, TX, 29 March–2 April 2009, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sulla F, Svensson J, Samuelsson O (2011) Symmetrical and unsymmetrical short-circuit current of squirrel-cage and doubly fed induction generators. Electr Power Syst Res 81:1610–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Howard DF, Smith TM, Starke M, Harley RG (2012) Short circuit analysis of induction machines—wind application. In: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE transmission and distribution conference and exposition, Orlando, FL, 7–10 May 2012, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Howard DF (2013) Short-circuit currents in wind-turbine generator networks. Dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Dec 2013, pp 1–273Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams JR, Karlson B (2012) Wind power plant short-circuit modeling guide. Sandia Nat Lab, Sandia Report SAND2012-6664, Albuquerque, NM, August 2012, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Joint Working Group (2015) Fault current contribution from wind plants. In: 2015 68th annual conference for protective relay engineers, Report to the T&D Committee of the IEEE power and energy society, 30 March–2 April 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1109/CPRE.2015.7102165
  17. 17.
    International Electrotechnical Commission (2016) Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems—Part 0: calculation of currents. IEC 60909-0, Ed 2, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 10–11Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Strezoski L, Prica M (2016) Calculation of relay currents in active weakly-meshed distribution systems. In: Proceedings of 2016 Clemson University power system conference (PSC), Clemson, SC, 8–11 March 2016, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Milanovic JV, Preece R (2014) Investigation of fault current contribution and management of AC machines. School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Manchester, Ref: UM_EEPS_ENW4.2-7/14, 16 July 2016, pp 1–53Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karaliolios P, Ischenko A, Coster E, Myrzik J, Kling W (2008) Overview of short-circuit contribution of various distributed generators on the distribution network. In: Proceedings of 2008 43rd international universities power engineering conference UPEC, 1–4 Sept 2008.  https://doi.org/10.1109/UPEC.2008.4651553
  21. 21.
    Bollen M, Hassan F (2011) Integration of distributed generation in the power system. IEEE Press & Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen TH, Chen MS, Lee WJ, Kotas P, Van Olinda P (1992) Distribution system short-circuit analysis—a rigid approach. IEEE Trans Power Syst 7(1):444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Halpin SM, Grigsby LL, Gross CA, Newls RM (1994) An improved fault analysis algorithm for unbalanced multi-phase power distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 9(3):1332–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Iravani MR, Karimi-Ghartemani M (2003) Online estimation of steady state and instantaneous symmetrical components. IEE Proc Gener Trans Distr 150(5):616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marvik JI (2011) Fault Localization in Medium Voltage Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation. Dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, June 2011, pp 1–166Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marx S, Bender D (2016) An Introduction to Symmetrical Components, System Modeling and Fault Calculation. In: Proc 33th Annual HANDS-ON Relay School, Washington State University Pullman, Washington, USA, 16–20 March 2016, pp 1–74Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gonen T (2013) Modern power system analysis, 2nd edn. Taylor&Francis Group, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhou N, Ye F, Wang Q, Lou X, Zhang Y (2016) Short-circuit calculation in distribution networks with distributed induction generators. Energies 9(4):277.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en9040277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spetlik J, Tlusty J (2005) Analysis of distributed generation sources using abc synchronous machine model. In: Proceedings of 2005 international conference on future power systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 18 Nov 2005, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lupşa-Tătaru L (2009) Comparative simulation study on synchronous generators sudden short circuits. Modelling and Simulation in Engineering 2009.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/867150. Article ID 867150, 11 pages

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladica Mijailović
    • 1
  • Dragan Ćetenović
    • 1
  • Aleksandar Ranković
    • 1
  • Predrag Petrović
    • 1
  • Dimitrije Rozgić
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of KragujevacČačakSerbia

Personalised recommendations