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Bone density in youth with prediabetes: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006

Abstract

Summary

Youth with type 2 diabetes might have suboptimal peak bone mass, but it is unknown whether similar effects are evident in youth with prediabetes. Results from this study suggest that diabetes-related effects on peak bone mass likely occur before disease onset, and involve the muscle-bone unit.

Introduction

Type 2 diabetes might adversely influence bone health around the age of peak bone mass, but it is unknown whether diabetes-related effects on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) are evident in youth with prediabetes. We compared age-related trends in aBMD and associations between lean body mass (LBM) and aBMD between children and adolescents with prediabetes vs. normal glucose regulation.

Methods

Cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2006) in youth ages 12–20 years (49% female, 34% black) with prediabetes (n = 267) and normal glucose regulation (n = 1664). Whole body aBMD and LBM were assessed via DXA. LBM index (LBMI) and Z-scores for aBMD and LBMI were computed.

Results

Unadjusted between-group comparisons revealed greater mean weight and LBMI Z-scores in youth with prediabetes vs. normal glucose regulation, but similar bone Z-scores between the two groups. While accounting for differences in BMI Z-score, there was a significant interaction between prediabetes status and age with respect to whole body aBMD Z-score (P < 0.05), such that children with prediabetes tended to have increased aBMD but adolescents and young adults with prediabetes tended have lower aBMD. Furthermore, the positive association between LBMI and whole body aBMD was moderated in youth with prediabetes (P < 0.001), who had slightly lower whole body aBMD for a given LBMI (P = 0.068). Lumbar spine bone measures did not differ between the two groups.

Conclusions

Type 2 diabetes-related threats to peak bone mass might occur prior to disease onset, therefore potentially impacting a considerable proportion of US youth.

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Data availability

All data are available through the study webpage.

Code availability

All codes are available upon request.

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Correspondence to J. Kindler.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent/assent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Kindler, J., Zhan, D., Sattler, E.L.P. et al. Bone density in youth with prediabetes: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006. Osteoporos Int (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-021-06148-2

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Keywords

  • aBMD
  • DXA
  • Prediabetes
  • Youth