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Do proximal hip geometry, trabecular microarchitecture, and prevalent vertebral fractures differ in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus? A cross-sectional study from a teaching hospital in southern India

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Abstract

Summary

This study from southern India showed that the trabecular microarchitecture and proximal hip geometry were significantly impaired in postmenopausal women with diabetes as compared to age and BMI matched non-diabetic controls. This is despite there being no significant difference in bone mineral density at the femoral neck and hip not between both groups. One-third of the study subjects with type 2 diabetes had prevalent vertebral fractures. Bone mineral density assessment as a standalone tool may not adequately reflect bone health in subjects with diabetes.

Introduction

There is limited information with regard to bone health in Indian postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. We studied the bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), prevalent vertebral fractures (VF), proximal hip geometry, and bone mineral biochemistry in ambulatory postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care center. BMD, TBS, prevalent vertebral fractures, and hip structural analysis (HSA) were assessed using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner. Bone mineral biochemical profiles were also studied.

Results

A total of 202 ambulatory postmenopausal women known to have type 2 diabetes mellitus with mean (SD) age of 65.6 (5.2) years and 200 age and BMI matched non-diabetic controls with mean (SD) age of 64.9 (4.7) years were recruited from the local community. Although the prevalence of lumbar spine osteoporosis was significantly lower among cases (30.7%) as compared to controls (42.9%), the prevalence of degraded bone microarchitecture (TBS < 1.200) was significantly higher among cases (51%) than in controls (23.5%); P < 0.001. Prevalent vertebral fractures were not significantly different in cases and controls. The various geometric indices of the proximal hip were significantly impaired in subjects with diabetes as compared to controls.

Conclusion

This study may highlight the utility of the trabecular bone score and hip structural analysis in subjects with diabetes, where the bone mineral density tends to be paradoxically high, and may not adequately predict fracture risk.

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Paul, J., Devarapalli, V., Johnson, J.T. et al. Do proximal hip geometry, trabecular microarchitecture, and prevalent vertebral fractures differ in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus? A cross-sectional study from a teaching hospital in southern India. Osteoporos Int 32, 1585–1593 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-021-05855-0

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