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Weight loss in men in late life and bone strength and microarchitecture: a prospective study

Abstract

Summary

Weight loss in men in late life was associated with lower bone strength. In contrast, weight gain was not associated with a commensurate increase in bone strength. Future studies should measure concurrent changes in weight and parameters of bone strength and microarchitecture and evaluate potential causal pathways underlying these associations.

Introduction

Our aim was to determine associations of weight loss with bone strength and microarchitecture.

Methods

We used data from 1723 community-dwelling men (mean age 84.5 years) who attended the MrOS study Year (Y) 14 exam and had high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans at ≥ 1 skeletal sites (distal tibia, distal radius, or diaphyseal tibia). Weight change from Y7 to Y14 exams (mean 7.3 years between exams) was classified as moderate weight loss (loss ≥ 10%), mild weight loss (loss 5 to < 10%), stable weight (< 5% change), or weight gain (gain ≥ 5%). Mean HR-pQCT parameters (95%CI) were calculated by weight change category using linear regression models adjusted for age, race, site, health status, body mass index, limb length, and physical activity. The primary outcome measure was estimated failure load.

Results

There was a nonlinear association of weight change with failure load at each skeletal site with different associations for weight loss vs. weight gain (p < 0.03). Failure load and total bone mineral density (BMD) at distal sites were lower with greater weight loss with 7.0–7.6% lower failure loads and 4.3–5.8% lower BMDs among men with moderate weight loss compared to those with stable weight (p < 0.01, both comparisons). Cortical, but not trabecular, BMDs at distal sites were lower with greater weight loss. Greater weight loss was associated with lower cortical thickness at all three skeletal sites.

Conclusion

Weight loss in men in late life is associated with lower peripheral bone strength and total BMD with global measures reflecting cortical but not trabecular parameters.

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Acknowledgments

The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by the National Institutes of Health funding. The following institutes provide support: the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, and UL1 TR000128. A.J. Burghardt received additional support through grant number R01 AR060700.

This manuscript is the result of work supported with resources and use of facilities of the Minneapolis VA Health Care System. The contents do not represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the US Government.

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Correspondence to K. E. Ensrud.

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The institutional review board at each participating institution approved the study protocol and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

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Cite this article

Ensrud, K.E., Vo, T.N., Burghardt, A.J. et al. Weight loss in men in late life and bone strength and microarchitecture: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int 29, 1549–1558 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-4489-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-4489-6

Keywords

  • Bone microarchitecture
  • HR-pQCT
  • Men
  • Weight change