Osteoporosis International

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 1135–1145 | Cite as

Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men

  • T. S. Rogers
  • S. Harrison
  • S. Judd
  • E. S. Orwoll
  • L. M. Marshall
  • J. Shannon
  • L. Langsetmo
  • N. E. Lane
  • J. M. Shikany
  • for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Research Group
Original Article



Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss.


This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time.


Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000–April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005–May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors.


Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hip %ΔBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed.


Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.


BMD change Dietary pattern Factor analysis Older men Prudent Western 



The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. The following institutes provide support: the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, UL1 TR000128, U01 AR45580, U01 AR45614, U01 AR45632, AR45647, AR45654, AR45583, and AG18197. Additional funding was provided by NIH/NIAMS grant P50 AR063043.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest


Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the MrOS study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at each clinic site, and all participants provided written informed consent. For this type of retrospective analysis, additional formal consent was not required.

Supplementary material

198_2018_4388_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (49 kb)
Online resource 1 (PDF 48 kb).
198_2018_4388_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (69 kb)
Online resource 2 (PDF 68 kb).
198_2018_4388_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (42 kb)
Online resource 3 (PDF 42 kb).


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Rogers
    • 1
  • S. Harrison
    • 2
  • S. Judd
    • 3
  • E. S. Orwoll
    • 4
  • L. M. Marshall
    • 4
  • J. Shannon
    • 4
  • L. Langsetmo
    • 5
  • N. E. Lane
    • 1
  • J. M. Shikany
    • 3
  • for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Research Group
  1. 1.Center for Musculoskeletal Health and Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of California - Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.California Pacific Medical Center Research InstituteSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.Oregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.University of Minnesota Epidemiology and Community HealthMinneapolisUSA

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