Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) protects ovariectomized rats fed with high-saturated fat-sucrose diet from bone loss
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Dietary patterns may interfere with the efficacy of herbal intervention. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMA) on bone metabolism were influenced by levels of dietary fat and sucrose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through its actions on attenuating lipid deposition and oxidative stress in rats.
Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), also known as Danshen, has been tested as an osteoporosis treatment in a series of small, short human trials that generally report improvements in bone property. However, dietary patterns may interfere with the effects of herbal intervention. We hypothesized that dietary fat and sucrose levels could influence the effects of SM supplementation on bone in estrogen-deficient animals.
Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley sham or OVX rats were fed either a low-saturated fat-sucrose (LFS, a diet that was similar in composition to normal rat chow) or a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet and OVX rats were treated (8 rats/group) with SM aqueous extract (SMA, 600 mg/kg/day), 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 12 weeks.
SMA significantly improved bone properties as revealed by the increase in trabecular bone mineral density and decrease in trabecular separation at proximal metaphysis of the tibia (PT) in HFS-fed OVX rats, but not in LFS-fed OVX rats. SMA greatly reduced lipid deposition and malondialdehyde levels, improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the livers of HFS-fed OVX rats. SMA could directly improve the proliferation and differentiation in vitro in an H2O2-induced preosteoblast cell model by attenuating cellular reactive oxygen species levels.
The protective effects of SMA on bone metabolism were influenced by dietary fat and sucrose levels in OVX rats. The ability of SMA to reduce bone loss in HFS-fed OVX rats was associated with the attenuation of lipid deposition and oxidative stress levels.
KeywordsBone loss Estrogen deficiency High-saturated fat-sucrose diet Oxidative stress Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract
analysis of variance
bone mineral content
bone mineral density
ratio of bone volume to total volume
average cortical thickness
ratio of cortical bone volume to total volume
degree of anisotropy
fetal bovine serum
minimal essential medium eagle
proximal metaphysis of the tibia
reactive oxygen species
standard error of mean
Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract
structure model index
- Tb. BMD
trabecular bone mineral density
total cross-sectional area inside the periosteal envelope
We thank the Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety and the State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation) for their support.
Xiao Li Dong and Man Sau Wong designed the experiment; Xiao Li Dong, Wen Xuan Yu, and Chun Mei Li conducted most of the experiments and analyzed the data; Shan He did cell culture experiments; Li Ping Zhou detected the oxidant/antioxidant levels in the liver of the experiment; Chui Wa Poon analyzed the microCT data; Man Sau Wong had primary responsibility for the final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was supported by the Shenzhen Basic Research Program (grant number JCYJ20140819153305696), the Shenzhen Basic Research Program (grant number JCY201506301152579000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81528024), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81601110).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
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