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Osteoporosis International

, Volume 28, Issue 10, pp 2759–2780 | Cite as

Sideways fall-induced impact force and its effect on hip fracture risk: a review

  • M. Nasiri Sarvi
  • Y. Luo
Review

Abstract

Summary

Osteoporotic hip fracture, mostly induced in falls among the elderly, is a major health burden over the world. The impact force applied to the hip is an important factor in determining the risk of hip fracture. However, biomechanical researches have yielded conflicting conclusions about whether the fall-induced impact force can be accurately predicted by the available models. It also has been debated whether or not the effect of impact force has been considered appropriately in hip fracture risk assessment tools. This study aimed to provide a state-of-the-art review of the available methods for predicting the impact force, investigate their strengths/limitations, and suggest further improvements in modeling of human body falling.

Methods

We divided the effective parameters on impact force to two categories: (1) the parameters that can be determined subject-specifically and (2) the parameters that may significantly vary from fall to fall for an individual and cannot be considered subject-specifically.

Results

The parameters in the first category can be investigated in human body fall experiments. Video capture of real-life falls was reported as a valuable method to investigate the parameters in the second category that significantly affect the impact force and cannot be determined in human body fall experiments.

Conclusions

The analysis of the gathered data revealed that there is a need to develop modified biomechanical models for more accurate prediction of the impact force and appropriately adopt them in hip fracture risk assessment tools in order to achieve a better precision in identifying high-risk patients.

Graphical abstract

Impact force to the hip induced in sideways falls is affected by many parameters and may remarkably vary from subject to subject

Keywords

Fall Fracture risk Hip Hip fracture Impact force Sideways 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

None.

Supplementary material

198_2017_4138_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (121 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 (PDF 120 kb)
198_2017_4138_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (120 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 (PDF 119 kb)
198_2017_4138_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (112 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 3 (PDF 112 kb)
198_2017_4138_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (122 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 4 (PDF 121 kb)

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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.AI IncorporatedTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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