In this cohort of community dwelling older adults (>60 years), we observed significant positive associations between the frequencies of yogurt intake with measures of bone density, bone biomarkers, and indicators of physical function. Improving yogurt intakes could be a valuable health strategy for maintaining bone health in older adults.
The associations of yogurt intakes with bone health and frailty in older adults are not well documented. The aim was to investigate the association of yogurt intakes with bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomarkers, and physical function in 4310 Irish adults from the Trinity, Ulster, Department of Agriculture aging cohort study (TUDA).
Bone measures included total hip, femoral neck, and vertebral BMD with bone biochemical markers. Physical function measures included Timed Up and Go (TUG), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale.
Total hip and femoral neck BMD in females were 3.1–3.9% higher among those with the highest yogurt intakes (n = 970) compared to the lowest (n = 1109; P < 0.05) as were the TUG scores (−6.7%; P = 0.013). In males, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP 5b) concentrations were significantly lower in those with the highest yogurt intakes (−9.5%; P < 0.0001). In females, yogurt intake was a significant positive predictor of BMD at all regions. Each unit increase in yogurt intake in females was associated with a 31% lower risk of osteopenia (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.49–0.96; P = 0.032) and a 39% lower risk of osteoporosis (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42–0.89; P = 0.012) and in males, a 52% lower risk of osteoporosis (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24–0.96; P = 0.038).
In this cohort, higher yogurt intake was associated with increased BMD and physical function scores. These results suggest that improving yogurt intakes could be a valuable public health strategy for maintaining bone health in older adults.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Cooper C (1999) Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 9(8):2–8
Ström O, Borgström F, Kanis AJ, Compston J, Cooper C, McCloskey EV, Jönsson B (2011) Osteoporosis: burden, healthcare provision and opportunities in the EU. Arch Osteoporos 6(1):59–155
Curtis JR, Blume SW (2011) Medical costs of osteoporosis in the elderly Medicare population. Osteoporos Int 22(6):1835–1844
Holroyd C, Cooper C, Dennison E (2008) Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endoc Meta 22(5):671–685
Hernlund E, Svedbom A, Ivergård M, Compston J, Cooper C, Stenmark J, McCloskey EV, Jönsson B, Kanis JA (2013) Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. Arch Osteoporos 8(1–2):1–15
Becker DJ, Kilgore ML, Morrisey MA (2010) The societal burden of osteoporosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2(3):186–191
Mitchell BD, Yerges-Armstrong LM (2011) The genetics of bone loss: challenges and prospects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(5):1258–1268
Greco EA, Fornari R, Rossi F et al (2010) Is obesity protective for osteoporosis? Evaluation of bone mineral density in individuals with high body mass index. Int J Clin Pract 64(6):817–820
Rizzoli R (2008) Nutrition: its role in bone health. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 22(5):813–829
Prentice AM (2014) Dairy products in global public health. Am J Clin Nutr 99(5):1212–1216
Rice BH, Quann EE, Miller GD (2013) Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease. Nutr Rev 71(4):209–223
Heaney RP (2013) Dairy intake, dietary adequacy and lactose intolerance. Adv Nutr 4(2):151–156
Clarke M, Ward M, Strain JJ, Hoey L, Dickey W, McNulty H (2014) B-vitamins and bone in health and disease: the current evidence. Proc Nutr Soc 73(2):330–339
Rizzoli R, Abraham C, Brandi ML (2014) Nutrition and bone health: turning knowledge and beliefs into healthy behaviour. Curr Med Res Opin 30(1):131–141
Heaney RP (2009) Dairy and bone health. J Am Coll Nutr 28(Sup 1):82–90
Dietary guidelines for Americans (2005) Dietary guidelines advisory committee report. 6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Government; Washington
Sahni S, Tucker KL, Kiel DP, Quach L, Casey VA, Hannan MT (2013) Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Osteoporos 8(1–2):1–9
Laird E, McNulty H, Ward M et al (2014) Vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammation in older Irish adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99(5):1807–1815
McCarroll K, Beirne A, Casey M et al (2015) Determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older Irish adults. Age Ageing 44(5):847–853
Molloy AM, Pangilinan F, Mills JL et al (2016) A common polymorphism in HIBCH influences methylmalonic acid concentrations in blood independently of cobalamin. Am J Hum Genet 98(5):869–882
Laird E, Casey MC, Ward M et al (2016) Dairy intakes in older Irish adults and effects on vitamin micronutrient status: Data from the TUDA study. J Nutr Health Aging. In Press
Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (2013) The Irish food portion sizes database (1st edition) 2013
World Health Organization (1992) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: report of a WHO study group (meeting held in Rome from 22 to 25 June 1992)
Bischoff HA, Stähelin HB, Monsch AU et al (2003) Identifying a cut-off point for normal mobility: a comparison of the timed ‘up and go’ test in community-dwelling and institutionalised elderly women. Age Ageing 32(3):315–320
Lawton MP, Brody EM (1969) Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 9(3):179–186
Hochberg MC, Greenspan S, Wasnich RD, Miller P, Thompson DE, Ross PD (2002) Changes in bone density and turnover explain the reductions in incidence of non-vertebral fractures that occur during treatment with anti-resorptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87(4):1586–1592
Henriksen K, Tanko LB, Qvist P, Delmas PD, Christiansen C, Karsdal MA (2007) Assessment of osteoclast number and function: application in the development of new and improved treatment modalities for bone diseases. Osteoporos Int 18(5):681–685
Bonjour JP, Benoit V, Payen F, Kraenzlin M (2013) Consumption of yogurts fortified in vitamin D and calcium reduces serum parathyroid hormone and markers of bone resorption: a double-blind randomized controlled trial in institutionalized elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98(7):2915–2921
Schoene D, Wu SM, Mikolaizak AS, Menant JC, Smith ST, Delbaere K, Lord SR (2013) Discriminative ability and predictive validity of the timed up and go test in identifying older people who fall: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 61(2):202–208
Lana A, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E (2015) Dairy consumption and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study. J Am Geriatr Soc 63(9):1852–1860
Radavelli-Bagatini S, Zhu K, Lewis JR, Dhaliwal SS, Prince RL (2013) Association of dairy intake with body composition and physical function in older community-dwelling women. J Acad Nutr Diet 113(12):1669–1674
Matteini AM, Walston JD, Fallin MD et al (2008) Markers of B-vitamin deficiency and frailty in older women. J Nutr Health Aging 12(5):303–308
Shardell M, Hicks GE, Miller RR, Kritchevsky S, Andersen D, Bandinelli S, Cherubini A, Ferrucci L (2009) Association of low vitamin D levels with the frailty syndrome in men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(1):69–75
Wang H, Livingston KA, Fox CS, Meigs JB, Jacques PF (2013) Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women. Nutr Res 33(1):18–26
Mistura L, D’Addezio L, Sette S, Piccinelli R, Turrini A (2016) Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet). Int J Food Sci Nutr 67(3):232–238
Parvaneh K, Jamaluddin R, Karimi G, Erfani R (2014) Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density. ScientificWorldJournal 22:595962
Parvaneh K, Ebrahimi M, Sabran MR, Karimi G, Hwei AN, Abdul-Majeed S, Ahmad Z, Ibrahim Z, Jamaluddin R (2015) Probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum) increase bone mass density and upregulate Sparc and Bmp-2 genes in rats with bone loss resulting from ovariectomy. Biomed Res Int. doi:10.1155/2015/897639
Korhonen H, Pihlanto A (2006) Bioactive peptides: production and functionality. Int Dairy J 16(9):945–960
Rizzoli R, Bonjour JP (2004) Dietary protein and bone health. J Bone Miner Res 19(4):527–531
Darling AL, Millward DJ, Torgerson DJ, Hewitt CE, Lanham-New SA (2009) Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 90(6):1674–1692
Narva M, Collin M, Lamberg-Allardt C, Kärkkäinen M, Poussa T, Vapaatalo H, Korpela R (2004) Effects of long-term intervention with Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in growing rats. Ann Nutr Metab 48(4):228–234
Tu MY, Chen HL, Tung YT, Kao CC, Hu FC, Chen CM (2015) Short-term effects of kefir-fermented milk consumption on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in a randomized clinical trial of osteoporotic patients. PLoS One 10(12):e0144231
Gilbert JA, Bendsen NT, Tremblay A, Astrup A (2011) Effect of proteins from different sources on body composition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21:B16–B31
Moreno LA, Bel-Serrat S, Santaliestra-Pasías A, Bueno G (2015) Dairy products, yogurt consumption, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Nutr Rev 73(suppl 1):8–14
Steves CJ, Bird S, Williams FM, Spector TD (2016) The microbiome and musculoskeletal conditions of aging: a review of evidence for impact and potential therapeutics. J Bone Miner Res 1 31(2):261–269
Stanhope KL (2016) Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: the state of the controversy. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 53(1):52–67
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2016) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 8. Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 9 grams protein per 8 ounce, Basic Report 01120. Accessed 4th July 2016
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2016) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 8. Yogurt, Greek, plain, low fat, Basic Report 01287. Accessed 4th July 2016
Rizzoli R (2014) Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health. Am J Clin Nutr 99(5):1256S–1262S
Rozenberg S, Body JJ, Bruyère O et al (2016) Effects of dairy products consumption on health: benefits and beliefs—a commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Calcif Tissue Int 98(1):1–7
Teucher B, Dainty JR, Spinks CA et al (2008) Sodium and bone health: impact of moderately high and low salt intakes on calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 23(9):1477–1485
Bonjour JP, Benoit V, Rousseau B, Souberbielle JC (2012) Consumption of vitamin D-and calcium-fortified soft white cheese lowers the biochemical marker of bone resorption TRAP 5b in postmenopausal women at moderate risk of osteoporosis fracture. J Nutr 142(4):698–703
The TUDA study was funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture, Food, and the Marine through the grants 07FHRIUCD1 (“JINGO” 2007–2013) and 13F407 (“JINGO–JPI”/“ENPADASI” 2014–2016) and from the Northern Ireland Department for Employment and Learning under its “Strengthening the all-Ireland Research Base” initiative. Funding for this study was also provided from The National Dairy Council Ireland. The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct, collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data or in the preparation, review, or approval of this manuscript. The authors also acknowledge Drs Martin Healy, Adrian McCann, and Liadhan McAnena for bone biochemical analysis.
Ethical approval was granted by the relevant authorities in each jurisdiction: the Research Ethics Committee of St. James’s Hospital and The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin, and the Office for Research Ethics Committees Northern Ireland (ORECNI; reference 08/NI/RO3113) with corresponding approvals from the Northern and Western Health and Social Care Trusts, Northern Ireland.
Conflict of interest
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Laird, E., Molloy, A.M., McNulty, H. et al. Greater yogurt consumption is associated with increased bone mineral density and physical function in older adults. Osteoporos Int 28, 2409–2419 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-4049-5
- Physical function