Osteoporosis International

, Volume 28, Issue 7, pp 2035–2044 | Cite as

Economic burden of osteoporosis-related hip fracture in Asia: a systematic review

  • N-A. Mohd-Tahir
  • S-C. LiEmail author



This review analyzes the economic costs of HF in Asia. The availability and quality of studies on the burden of osteoporosis in Asia are very scarce. There is a need to encourage more quality cost of osteoporosis studies based on standardized methods to convince healthcare authorities in implementing appropriate strategies.


Osteoporosis fractures, especially hip fractures, impose large economic costs to governments and societies. This review aimed to systematically analyze available evidence on healthcare costs associated with osteoporosis-related hip fractures (HF) in Asia.


Articles were systematically sought from databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and EBSCOHost between 2000 and 2015. Total costs associated with HF care, the cost components, and length of stays were retrieved and analyzed. Study designs were also qualitatively analyzed.


The availability of published studies on economic burden of HF in Asia is severely lacking with only 15 articles met the inclusion criteria. Even among the included studies, only two studies reported comprehensive costs evaluating all costs including indirect or intangible costs. Most studies satisfactorily reported criteria for conducting economic evaluation, but large variations existed in the methodological design. Due to study design and other influencing factors, large variation in the cost of HF treatment from US$774 to US$14,198.90 (median S$2943), representing an average of 18.95% (range: 3.58–57.05%) of the countries’ 2014 GDP/capita, was observed. This highlighted the heavy burden of managing HF in Asia with about 40% of the included studies reported using more than one third of GDP/capita.


There is a paucity of burden of illness studies of osteoporosis in the Asian region. For the few available studies, there was a lack of standardization in methodological approach in evaluating the economic burden of the disease. There is a need to encourage more quality burden of illness studies of osteoporosis to inform policymakers in healthcare planning.


Burden of disease Cost of illnesses Fracture Healthcare costs Osteoporosis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The views expressed in the submitted article are the authors own opinion’s and does not express the views of their official position of the institution or funder.


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences and PharmacyUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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