Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) impairs musculoskeletal health. We evaluated the efficacy of 32-week football training on bone mineral density (BMD) and physical functioning in men undergoing ADT for PCa. Football training improved the femoral shaft and total hip BMD and physical functioning parameters compared to control.
ADT is a mainstay in PCa management. Side effects include decreased bone and muscle strength and increased fracture rates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 32 weeks of football training on BMD, bone turnover markers (BTMs), body composition, and physical functioning in men with PCa undergoing ADT.
Men receiving ADT >6 months (n = 57) were randomly allocated to a football training group (FTG) (n = 29) practising 2–3 times per week for 45–60 min or to a standard care control group (CON) (n = 28) for 32 weeks. Outcomes were total hip, femoral shaft, femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD and systemic BTMs (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen). Additionally, physical functioning (postural balance, jump height, repeated chair rise, stair climbing) was evaluated.
Thirty-two-week follow-up measures were obtained for FTG (n = 21) and for CON (n = 20), respectively. Analysis of mean changes from baseline to 32 weeks showed significant differences between FTG and CON in right (0.015 g/cm2) and left (0.017 g/cm2) total hip and in right (0.018 g/cm2) and left (0.024 g/cm2) femoral shaft BMD, jump height (1.7 cm) and stair climbing (−0.21 s) all in favour of FTG (p < 0.05). No other significant between-group differences were observed.
Compared to standard care, 32 weeks of football training improved BMD at clinically important femoral sites and parameters of physical functioning in men undergoing ADT for PCa.
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The authors would like to thank all the participants for their contributions to the study. The authors would also like to thank Ditte Marie Bruun, Christian Frandsen, and Jens Jung Nielsen for expert advice and assistance in collecting data. The study was supported by grants from the Center for Integrated Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients (CIRE), which was established and is supported by the Danish Cancer Society and the Novo Nordisk Foundation. The project was also supported by TrygFonden, Preben and Anna Simonsen Fonden, and The Beckett Foundation.
Conflicts of interest
All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethical approval was obtained from the Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics for the Capital Region of Denmark (registration number H-3-2011-131), and all participants gave informed written consent before any study procedures were undertaken.
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Uth, J., Hornstrup, T., Christensen, J.F. et al. Efficacy of recreational football on bone health, body composition, and physical functioning in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: 32-week follow-up of the FC prostate randomised controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 27, 1507–1518 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-015-3399-0
- Androgen deprivation therapy
- Bone mineral density
- Bone turnover markers
- Physical activity