Associations between sedentary behaviour and body composition, muscle function and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults

Abstract

Summary

While previous studies have reported detrimental associations of sedentary behaviours with cardiometabolic disorders and mortality, in this study, we report that higher levels of sitting time were associated with a greater risk of sarcopenia, with increased television (TV) viewing negatively associated with lean mass, independent of physical activity.

Introduction

Sedentary behaviour has been linked to cardiometabolic disorders and mortality, but little is known about its effects on musculoskeletal health and function. This study investigated the relationship between total sitting and TV viewing time on sarcopenia and its determinants (muscle mass, strength and function) in older adults.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 162 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 to 86 years who had complete assessment of total body and regional lean mass (LM) and fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), lower limb muscle strength, power and functional performance. Sarcopenia was defined as the lowest sex-specific quartile for relative appendicular LM plus muscle strength and/or gait speed. Total sitting and TV viewing time were self-reported using a validated questionnaire. A sitting fragmentation ratio, as an index of breaks in sitting time, was calculated as the number of sitting bouts divided by total sitting time.

Results

Greater overall sitting time was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia; for each 1-h increment, the risk increased by 33 % [odds ratio 1.33 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 1.68)], independent of physical activity and other lifestyle and confounding factors. TV viewing time was associated with lower total body and leg LM after adjusting for various confounders and fat mass. There were no associations between total sitting or TV viewing time or the fragmentation ratio with any other measure.

Conclusion

Higher levels of sedentary behaviour in older adults were associated with reduced muscle mass and an increased risk of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, independent of physical activity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Pate RR, O’Neill JR, Lobelo F (2008) The evolving definition of "sedentary". Exerc Sport Sci Rev 36:173–178

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Inoue S, Sugiyama T, Takamiya T, Oka K, Owen N, Shimomitsu T (2012) Television viewing time is associated with overweight/obesity among older adults, independent of meeting physical activity and health guidelines. J J Epidemiol Community Health 22:50–56

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Owen N, Armstrong T, Zimmet PZ, Welborn TA, Cameron AJ, Dwyer T, Jolley D, Shaw JE, AusDiab Steering C (2005) Associations of TV viewing and physical activity with the metabolic syndrome in Australian adults. Diabetologia 48:2254–2261

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cooper AR, Sebire S, Montgomery AA, Peters TJ, Sharp DJ, Jackson N, Fitzsimons K, Dayan CM, Andrews RC (2012) Sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time and metabolic variables in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 55:589–599

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gardiner PA, Healy GN, Eakin EG, Clark BK, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N (2011) Associations between television viewing time and overall sitting time with the metabolic syndrome in older men and women: the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:788–796

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Healy GN, Shaw JE, Jolley D, Zimmet PZ, Owen N, AusDiab Steering C (2007) Association of television viewing with fasting and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose levels in adults without diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:516–522

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Craig CL, Bouchard C (2009) Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:998–1005

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dunstan DW, Barr ELM, Healy GN, Salmon J, Shaw JE, Balkau B, Magliano DJ, Cameron AJ, Zimmet PZ, Owen N (2010) Television viewing time and mortality: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Circulation 121:384–391

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW (2004) Exercise physiology versus inactivity physiology: an essential concept for understanding lipoprotein lipase regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 32:161–166

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Yates T, Khunti K, Wilmot EG, Brady E, Webb D, Srinivasan B, Henson J, Talbot D, Davies MJ (2012) Self-reported sitting time and markers of inflammation, insulin resistance, and adiposity. Am J Prev Med 42:1–7

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R (2002) Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:889–896

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Landi F, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Liperoti R, Russo A, Giovannini S, Tosato M, Capoluongo E, Bernabei R, Onder G (2013) Sarcopenia and mortality risk in frail older persons aged 80 years and older: results from ilSIRENTE study. Age Ageing 42:203–209

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Landi F, Liperoti R, Russo A, Giovannini S, Tosato M, Capoluongo E, Bernabei R, Onder G (2012) Sarcopenia as a risk factor for falls in elderly individuals: results from the ilSIRENTE study. Clin Nutr 31:652–658

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel JP, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Zamboni M (2010) Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39:412–423

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Fielding RA, Vellas B, Evans WJ, Bhasin S, Morley JE, Newman AB, Abellan van Kan G, Andrieu S, Bauer J, Breuille D, Cederholm T, Chandler J, De Meynard C, Donini L, Harris T, Kannt A, Keime Guibert F, Onder G, Papanicolaou D, Rolland Y, Rooks D, Sieber C, Souhami E, Verlaan S, Zamboni M (2011) Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 12:249–256

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Hamer M, Stamatakis E (2013) Screen-based sedentary behavior, physical activity, and muscle strength in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PLoS One 8:e66222

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chastin SFM, Ferriolli E, Stephens NA, Fearon KCH, Greig C (2012) Relationship between sedentary behaviour, physical activity, muscle quality and body composition in healthy older adults. Age Ageing 41:111–114

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    McDermott MM, Liu K, Ferrucci L, Tian L, Guralnik JM, Liao Y, Criqui MH (2011) Greater sedentary hours and slower walking speed outside the home predict faster declines in functioning and adverse calf muscle changes in peripheral arterial disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 57:2356–2364

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Santos DA, Silva AM, Baptista F, Santos R, Vale S, Mota J, Sardinha LB (2012) Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults. Exp Gerontol 47:908–912

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Dunlop D, Song J, Arnston E, Semanik P, Lee J, Chang R, Hootman JM (2014) Sedentary time in U.S. older adults associated with disability in activities of daily living independent of physical activity. J Phys Act Health Feb 5 [ahead of print]

  21. 21.

    Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N (2008) Breaks in sedentary time—beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care 31:661–666

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gianoudis J, Bailey CA, Sanders KM, Nowson CA, Hill K, Ebeling PR, Daly RM (2012) Osteo-cise: strong bones for life: protocol for a community-based randomised controlled trial of a multi-modal exercise and osteoporosis education program for older adults at risk of falls and fractures. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 13:78

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Bean JF, Kiely DK, LaRose S, Alian J, Frontera WR (2007) Is stair climb power a clinically relevant measure of leg power impairments in at-risk older adults? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 88:604–609

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Salmon J, Owen N, Crawford D, Bauman A, Sallis JF (2003) Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference. Health Psychol 22:178–188

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Matthews CE, Keadle S, Sampson J, Lyden K, Libertine A, Bowles HR, Freedson PS, Fowke JH (2012) Validation of a previous day recall measuring time spent in physically active and sedentary behaviors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:642–642

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Chastin SFM, Granat MH (2010) Methods for objective measure, quantification and analysis of sedentary behaviour and inactivity. Gait Posture 31:82–86

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Stewart AL, Mills KM, King AC, Haskell WL, Gillis D, Ritter PL (2001) CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire for older adults: outcomes for interventions. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1126–1141

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Delmonico MJ, Harris TB, Lee JS, Visser M, Nevitt M, Kritchevsky SB, Tylavsky FA, Newman AB, Health A, Body Composition S (2007) Alternative definitions of sarcopenia, lower extremity performance, and functional impairment with aging in older men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc 55:769–774

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sjoblom S, Suuronen J, Rikkonen T, Honkanen R, Kroger H, Sirola J (2013) Relationship between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the components of clinical sarcopenia. Maturitas 75:175–180

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Rubin SM, Simonsick EM, Harris TB (2005) Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60:324–333

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Kortebein P, Ferrando A, Lombeida J, Wolfe R, Evans WJ (2007) Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults. JAMA 297:1772–1774

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Scott D, Blizzard L, Fell J, Jones G (2009) Ambulatory activity, body composition, and lower-limb muscle strength in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:383–389

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Bowman SA (2006) Television-viewing characteristics of adults: correlations to eating practices and overweight and health status. Prev Chronic Dis 3:A38

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Jeffery RW, French SA (1998) Epidemic obesity in the United States: are fast foods and television viewing contributing? Am J Public Health 88:277–280

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Kershaw EE, Flier JS (2004) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2548–2556

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Roubenoff R (2000) Sarcopenic obesity: does muscle loss cause fat gain? Lessons from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 904:553–557

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Peake J, Della Gatta P, Cameron-Smith D (2010) Aging and its effects on inflammation in skeletal muscle at rest and following exercise-induced muscle injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298:R1485–R1495

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Aleman H, Esparza J, Ramirez FA, Astiazaran H, Payette H (2011) Longitudinal evidence on the association between interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein with the loss of total appendicular skeletal muscle in free-living older men and women. Age Ageing 40:469–475

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Schaap LA, Pluijm SM, Deeg DJ, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Colbert LH, Pahor M, Rubin SM, Tylavsky FA, Visser M, Health ABCS (2009) Higher inflammatory marker levels in older persons: associations with 5-year change in muscle mass and muscle strength. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64:1183–1189

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Gennuso KP, Gangnon RE, Matthews CE, Thraen-Borowski KM, Colbert LH (2013) Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and markers of health in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45:1493–1500

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW, Winkler EAH, Owen N (2011) Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in US adults: NHANES 2003–06. Eur Heart J 32:590–597

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Howard BJ, Balkau B, Thorp AA, Magliano DJ, Shaw JE, Owen N, Dunstan DW (2014) Associations of overall sitting time and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and C reactive protein: the AusDiab study. Br J Sports Med. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093014

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Salmon J, Zimmet PZ, Owen N (2008) Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Diabetes Care 31:369–371

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Seguin R, Lamonte M, Tinker L, Liu J, Woods N, Michael YL, Bushnell C, Lacroix AZ (2012) Sedentary behavior and physical function decline in older women: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative. J Aging Res 2012:271589

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Davis MG, Fox KR, Stathi A, Trayers T, Thompson J, Cooper AR (2013) Objectively measured sedentary time and lower extremity function in older adults. J Aging Phys Act Oct 1 [ahead of print]

Download references

Conflicts of interest

None.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. M. Daly.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gianoudis, J., Bailey, C.A. & Daly, R.M. Associations between sedentary behaviour and body composition, muscle function and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Osteoporos Int 26, 571–579 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-014-2895-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Functional capacity
  • Muscle mass
  • Older adults
  • Sarcopenia
  • Sedentary behaviour