Early-stage chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and osteoporosis as risk factors of sarcopenia in aged population: The Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008–2009
- 774 Downloads
Sarcopenia means the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging. In this study, we found that insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease stage 3, and osteoporosis at the femur neck were closely associated with sarcopenia in elderly men. These conditions modified to slow down the progression of sarcopenia.
Sarcopenia is known to have multiple contributing factors; however, its modifiable risk factors have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the most influential and modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly.
This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008–2009. This study included 940 men and 1,324 women aged 65 years and older who completed a body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height2 of less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.
Using univariate analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, high-risk drinking, family income, osteoporosis, daily energy, and protein intake were associated with sarcopenia in men; age, BMI, limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, occupation, osteoporosis at the total hip, and daily energy intake were associated with sarcopenia in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (odds ratio [OR] for sarcopenia, 2.27; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21–4.25), chronic kidney disease stage 3 (OR, 3.13; 95 % CI, 1.14–8.61), and osteoporosis at the femur neck (OR, 6.83; 95 % CI, 1.08–43.41) were identified as risk factors for sarcopenia in men.
Insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis at the femur neck should be modified to prevent the acceleration of skeletal muscle loss in elderly men.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Insulin resistance Osteoporosis Sarcopenia
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 20110001024).
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Muscaritoli M, Anker SD, Argiles J, Aversa Z, Bauer JM, Biolo G et al (2010) Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) “cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases” and “nutrition in geriatrics”. Clin Nutr 29(2):154–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Kim SH, Kim TH, Hwang HJ (2013) The relationship of physical activity (PA) and walking with sarcopenia in Korean males aged 60 years and older using the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008–2009. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 56(3):472–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Kim MK, Baek KH, Song KH, Il Kang M, Park CY, Lee WY et al (2011) Vitamin D deficiency is associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans, regardless of obesity: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV) 2009. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(10):3250–3256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Wang XH, Mitch WE (2013) Muscle wasting from kidney failure-a model for catabolic conditions. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 45(10):2230–2238Google Scholar
- 34.2013. A shared pleiotropy of bone and muscle mass: muscle mass is more strongly associated with bone mass than with fat mass or deterioration of glucose metabolism in the elderly: Hearing before the Seoul International Congress of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SICEM), Bone III Sess. (4 May, 2013)Google Scholar
- 38.Fielding RA, Vellas B, Evans WJ, Bhasin S, Morley JE, Newman AB et al (2011) Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International Working Group on Sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 12:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar