Osteoporosis International

, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 2929–2953 | Cite as

Cancer-associated bone disease

  • R. Rizzoli
  • J.-J. Body
  • M.-L. Brandi
  • J. Cannata-Andia
  • D. Chappard
  • A. El Maghraoui
  • C. C. Glüer
  • D. Kendler
  • N. Napoli
  • A. Papaioannou
  • D. D. Pierroz
  • M. Rahme
  • C. H. Van Poznak
  • T. J. de Villiers
  • G. El Hajj Fuleihan
  • for the International Osteoporosis Foundation Committee of Scientific Advisors Working Group on Cancer-Induced Bone Disease
Position Paper


Bone is commonly affected in cancer. Cancer-induced bone disease results from the primary disease, or from therapies against the primary condition, causing bone fragility. Bone-modifying agents, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, are efficacious in preventing and delaying cancer-related bone disease. With evidence-based care pathways, guidelines assist physicians in clinical decision-making. Of the 57 million deaths in 2008 worldwide, almost two thirds were due to non-communicable diseases, led by cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Bone is a commonly affected organ in cancer, and although the incidence of metastatic bone disease is not well defined, it is estimated that around half of patients who die from cancer in the USA each year have bone involvement. Furthermore, cancer-induced bone disease can result from the primary disease itself, either due to circulating bone resorbing substances or metastatic bone disease, such as commonly occurs with breast, lung and prostate cancer, or from therapies administered to treat the primary condition thus causing bone loss and fractures. Treatment-induced osteoporosis may occur in the setting of glucocorticoid therapy or oestrogen deprivation therapy, chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure and androgen deprivation therapy. Tumour skeletal-related events include pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, surgery and radiotherapy to bone and may or may not include hypercalcaemia of malignancy while skeletal complication refers to pain and other symptoms. Some evidence demonstrates the efficacy of various interventions including bone-modifying agents, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, in preventing or delaying cancer-related bone disease. The latter includes treatment of patients with metastatic skeletal lesions in general, adjuvant treatment of breast and prostate cancer in particular, and the prevention of cancer-associated bone disease. This has led to the development of guidelines by several societies and working groups to assist physicians in clinical decision making, providing them with evidence-based care pathways to prevent skeletal-related events and bone loss. The goal of this paper is to put forth an IOF position paper addressing bone diseases and cancer and summarizing the position papers of other organizations.


Bone Cancer IOF Skeletal-related events 



Austrian Breast & Colorectal Cancer Study Group


Androgen deprivation therapy


Aromatase inhibitor


Alkaline phosphatase


American Society of Clinical Oncology


Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination


Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid to Reduce Recurrence


Bone turnover marker


Bone mineral density


Confidence interval


Cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5 fluorouracil


Computed tomography


Cross-linked terminal telopeptide


Dickkopf-related protein


Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry


Estrogen receptor




European Society for Clinical and Economical Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis






Fibroblast growth factor


WHO fracture risk assessment tool


Gonadotropin-releasing hormone


Hazard ratio


Insulin-like growth factor


Intergroup Exemestane Study






Magnetic resonance imaging


National Comprehensive Cancer Network


N-terminal telopeptide


Osteonecrosis of the jaw




Platelet-derived growth factor-BB


Positron emission tomography


Prostate-specific antigen


Parathyroid hormone-related protein


Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B


Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand


Randomized controlled trial


Relative risk


Study of Anastrozole with the Bisphosphonate Risedronate


Selective oestrogen receptor modulator


Secreted frizzled-related protein


Skeletal-related event


Transforming growth factor-beta


Tumour necrosis factor-alpha


Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase


Thyroid-stimulating hormone


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Vertebral fracture assessment


World Health Organization

Z-Fast and ZO-Fast

Zometa-Femara Adjuvant Synergy Trials


Alpha cross-linked telopeptides type


  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D (2011) Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 61:69–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO (2011) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Description of the global burden of NCDs, their risk factors and determinants. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weigelt B, Peterse JL, van ’t Veer LJ (2005) Breast cancer metastasis: markers and models. Nat Rev Cancer 5:591–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coleman RE (2006) Clinical features of metastatic bone disease and risk of skeletal morbidity. Clin Cancer Res 12:6243s–6249sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coleman RE, Rubens RD (1987) The clinical course of bone metastases from breast cancer. Br J Cancer 55:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mundy GR (2002) Metastasis to bone: causes, consequences and therapeutic opportunities. Nat Rev Cancer 2:584–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coleman RE (2001) Metastatic bone disease: clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment strategies. Cancer Treat Rev 27:165–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cazzaniga M, Pronzato P, Leto di Priolo SL, De Matteis A, Di Costanzo F, Passalacqua R, Rosso R, Torri V (2004) Patterns of relapse and modalities of treatment of breast cancer: the ‘IRIS’ Project, a multicenter observational study. Oncology 66:260–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roodman GD (2004) Mechanisms of bone metastasis. N Engl J Med 350:1655–1664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reuss-Borst M, Hartmann U, Scheede C, Weiss J (2012) Prevalence of osteoporosis among cancer patients in Germany: prospective data from an oncological rehabilitation clinic. Osteoporos Int 23:1437–1444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen Z, Maricic M, Bassford TL, Pettinger M, Ritenbaugh C, Lopez AM, Barad DH, Gass M, Leboff MS (2005) Fracture risk among breast cancer survivors: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Arch Intern Med 165:552–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Powles T, Paterson AH, Ashley S, Spector T (1999) A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer. Br J Cancer 79:1179–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eastell R (2007) Aromatase inhibitors and bone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 106:157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McCloskey E (2006) Effects of third-generation aromatase inhibitors on bone. Eur J Cancer 42:1044–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rizzoli R, Body JJ, De Censi A, Reginster JY, Piscitelli P, Brandi ML, European Society for Clinical Economical Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) (2012) Guidance for the prevention of bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women treated with aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer: an ESCEO position paper. Osteoporos Int 23:2567–2576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eastell R, Adams JE, Coleman RE, Howell A, Hannon RA, Cuzick J, Mackey JR, Beckmann MW, Clack G (2008) Effect of anastrozole on bone mineral density: 5-year results from the anastrozole, tamoxifen, alone or in combination trial 18233230. J Clin Oncol 26:1051–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morote J, Morin JP, Orsola A, Abascal JM, Salvador C, Trilla E, Raventos CX, Cecchini L, Encabo G, Reventos J (2007) Prevalence of osteoporosis during long-term androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. Urology 69:500–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS (2005) Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 352:154–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morote J, Orsola A, Abascal JM, Planas J, Trilla E, Raventos CX, Cecchini L, Encabo G, Reventos J (2006) Bone mineral density changes in patients with prostate cancer during the first 2 years of androgen suppression. J Urol 175:1679–1683, discussion 1683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roodman GD (2009) Pathogenesis of myeloma bone disease. Leukemia 23:435–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guise TA, Mundy GR (1998) Cancer and bone. Endocr Rev 19:18–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chappard D, Bouvard B, Basle MF, Legrand E, Audran M (2011) Bone metastasis: histological changes and pathophysiological mechanisms in osteolytic or osteosclerotic localizations. A review. Morphologie 95:65–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clézardin P, Teti A (2007) Bone metastasis: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications. Clin Exp Metastasis 24:599–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guise TA (2000) Molecular mechanisms of osteolytic bone metastases. Cancer 88:2892–2898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pugsley MK, Tabrizchi R (2000) The vascular system. An overview of structure and function. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 44:333–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chappard D, Libouban H, Legrand E, Ifrah N, Masson C, Basle MF, Audran M (2010) Computed microtomography of bone specimens for rapid analysis of bone changes associated with malignancy. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 293:1125–1133Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Powell GJ, Southby J, Danks JA, Stillwell RG, Hayman JA, Henderson MA, Bennett RC, Martin TJ (1991) Localization of parathyroid hormone-related protein in breast cancer metastases: increased incidence in bone compared with other sites. Cancer Res 51:3059–3061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jones DH, Nakashima T, Sanchez OH et al (2006) Regulation of cancer cell migration and bone metastasis by RANKL. Nat Geosci 440:692–696Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leeming DJ, Delling G, Koizumi M, Henriksen K, Karsdal MA, Li B, Qvist P, Tanko LB, Byrjalsen I (2006) Alpha CTX as a biomarker of skeletal invasion of breast cancer: immunolocalization and the load dependency of urinary excretion. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1392–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Granchi S, Brocchi S, Bonaccorsi L, Baldi E, Vinci MC, Forti G, Serio M, Maggi M (2001) Endothelin-1 production by prostate cancer cell lines is up-regulated by factors involved in cancer progression and down-regulated by androgens. Prostate 49:267–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Takuwa Y, Masaki T, Yamashita K (1990) The effects of the endothelin family peptides on cultured osteoblastic cells from rat calvariae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:998–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lu Y, Zhang J, Dai J, Dehne LA, Mizokami A, Yao Z, Keller ET (2004) Osteoblasts induce prostate cancer proliferation and PSA expression through interleukin-6-mediated activation of the androgen receptor. Clin Exp Metastasis 21:399–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nakashima J, Tachibana M, Horiguchi Y, Oya M, Ohigashi T, Asakura H, Murai M (2000) Serum interleukin 6 as a prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 6:2702–2706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shariat SF, Andrews B, Kattan MW, Kim J, Wheeler TM, Slawin KM (2001) Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and its soluble receptor are associated with prostate cancer progression and metastasis. Urology 58:1008–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bataille R, Chappard D, Basle M (1995) Excessive bone resorption in human plasmacytomas: direct induction by tumour cells in vivo. Br J Haematol 90:721–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bataille R, Chappard D, Klein B (1992) Mechanisms of bone lesions in multiple myeloma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 6:285–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Colla S, Zhan F, Xiong W, Wu X, Xu H, Stephens O, Yaccoby S, Epstein J, Barlogie B, Shaughnessy JD Jr (2007) The oxidative stress response regulates DKK1 expression through the JNK signaling cascade in multiple myeloma plasma cells. Blood 109:4470–4477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tian E, Zhan F, Walker R, Rasmussen E, Ma Y, Barlogie B, Shaughnessy JD Jr (2003) The role of the Wnt-signaling antagonist DKK1 in the development of osteolytic lesions in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 349:2483–2494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barretina J, Junca J, Llano A, Gutierrez A, Flores A, Blanco J, Clotet B, Este JA (2003) CXCR4 and SDF-1 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and stage of the disease. Ann Hematol 82:500–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Josselin N, Libouban H, Dib M, Ifrah N, Legrand E, Basle MF, Audran M, Chappard D (2009) Quantification of dendritic cells and osteoclasts in the bone marrow of patients with monoclonal gammopathy. Pathol Oncol Res 15:65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marcelli C, Chappard D, Rossi JF, Jaubert J, Alexandre C, Dessauw P, Baldet P, Bataille R (1988) Histologic evidence of an abnormal bone remodeling in B-cell malignancies other than multiple myeloma. Cancer 62:1163–1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Coleman RE, Lipton A, Roodman GD et al (2010) Metastasis and bone loss: advancing treatment and prevention. Cancer Treat Rev 36:615–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stava CJ, Jimenez C, Hu MI, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R (2009) Skeletal sequelae of cancer and cancer treatment. J Cancer Surviv 3:75–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    VanderWalde A, Hurria A (2011) Aging and osteoporosis in breast and prostate cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 61:139–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Michaud LB (2010) Managing cancer treatment-induced bone loss and osteoporosis in patients with breast or prostate cancer. Am J Health Syst Pharm 67:S20–30, quiz S31-23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wadhwa VK, Parr NJ (2009) Peripheral or axial bone density measurements to identify osteoporosis in prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy? Urology 73:1347–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hadji P (2010) Guidelines for osteoprotection in breast cancer patients on an aromatase inhibitor. Breast Care (Basel) 5:290–296Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shapiro CL, Manola J, Leboff M (2001) Ovarian failure after adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with rapid bone loss in women with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 19:3306–3311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Eastell R, Hannon RA, Cuzick J, Dowsett M, Clack G, Adams JE (2006) Effect of an aromatase inhibitor on bmd and bone turnover markers: 2-year results of the Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial (18233230). J Bone Miner Res 21:1215–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gnant MF, Mlineritsch B, Luschin-Ebengreuth G et al (2007) Zoledronic acid prevents cancer treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone-responsive breast cancer: a report from the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 25:820–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hadji P (2009) Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in breast cancer patients is distinct from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 69:73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bines J, Oleske DM, Cobleigh MA (1996) Ovarian function in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 14:1718–1729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Meistrich ML (2009) Male gonadal toxicity. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53:261–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bokemeyer C, Berger CC, Kuczyk MA, Schmoll HJ (1996) Evaluation of long-term toxicity after chemotherapy for testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 14:2923–2932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Weilbaecher KN (2000) Mechanisms of osteoporosis after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 6:165–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Love RR, Barden HS, Mazess RB, Epstein S, Chappell RJ (1994) Effect of tamoxifen on lumbar spine bone mineral density in postmenopausal women after 5 years. Arch Intern Med 154:2585–2588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Love RR, Mazess RB, Barden HS, Epstein S, Newcomb PA, Jordan VC, Carbone PP, DeMets DL (1992) Effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 326:852–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hu MI, Gagel RF, Jimenez C (2007) Bone loss in patients with breast or prostate cancer. Curr Osteoporos Rep 5:170–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bouvard B, Hoppe E, Soulie P et al (2012) High prevalence of vertebral fractures in women with breast cancer starting aromatase inhibitor therapy. Ann Oncol 23:1151–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ghazi M, Roux C (2009) Hormonal deprivation therapy-induced osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 23:805–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Reid DM (2009) Prevention of osteoporosis after breast cancer. Maturitas 64:4–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rozenberg S, Carly B, Liebens F, Antoine C (2009) Risks of osteoporosis associated with breast cancer treatment: the need to access to preventive treatment. Maturitas 64:1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yamamoto DS, Viale PH (2009) Update on identifying and managing osteoporosis in women with breast cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs 13:E18–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McCloskey EV, Hannon RA, Lakner G, Fraser WD, Clack G, Miyamoto A, Finkelman RD, Eastell R (2007) Effects of third generation aromatase inhibitors on bone health and other safety parameters: results of an open, randomised, multi-centre study of letrozole, exemestane and anastrozole in healthy postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer 43:2523–2531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Winer EP, Hudis C, Burstein HJ et al (2005) American Society of Clinical Oncology technology assessment on the use of aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: status report 2004. J Clin Oncol 23:619–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cummings SR, Duong T, Kenyon E, Cauley JA, Whitehead M, Krueger KA, Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation T (2002) Serum estradiol level and risk of breast cancer during treatment with raloxifene. JAMA 287:216–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gibson K, O’Bryant CL (2008) Screening and management of osteoporosis in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors. J Oncol Pharm Pract 14:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Arimidex T, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) Trialists’ Group, Forbes JF, Cuzick J, Buzdar A, Howell A, Tobias JS, Baum M (2008) Effect of anastrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer: 100-month analysis of the ATAC trial. Lancet Oncol 9:45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jakesz R, Jonat W, Gnant M et al (2005) Switching of postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer to anastrozole after 2 years’ adjuvant tamoxifen: combined results of ABCSG trial 8 and ARNO 95 trial. Lancet 366:455–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Coates AS, Keshaviah A, Thurlimann B et al (2007) Five years of letrozole compared with tamoxifen as initial adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: update of study BIG 1-98. J Clin Oncol 25:486–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Perez EA, Josse RG, Pritchard KI et al (2006) Effect of letrozole versus placebo on bone mineral density in women with primary breast cancer completing 5 or more years of adjuvant tamoxifen: a companion study to NCIC CTG MA.17. J Clin Oncol 24:3629–3635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Coombes RC, Kilburn LS, Snowdon CF et al (2007) Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2–3 years’ tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 369:559–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Napoli N, Rastelli A, Ma C et al (2013) Genetic polymorphism at Val(80) (rs700518) of the CYP19A1 gene is associated with aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss in women with ER (+) breast cancer. Bone 55:309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Malcolm JB, Derweesh IH, Kincade MC, DiBlasio CJ, Lamar KD, Wake RW, Patterson AL (2007) Osteoporosis and fractures after androgen deprivation initiation for prostate cancer. Can J Urol 14:3551–3559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Alibhai SM, Breunis H, Timilshina N et al (2010) Impact of androgen-deprivation therapy on physical function and quality of life in men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 28:5038–5045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Saad F, Adachi JD, Brown JP, Canning LA, Gelmon KA, Josse RG, Pritchard KI (2008) Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in breast and prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:5465–5476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, Orihuela E, Goodwin JS (2005) Increasing use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of localized prostate carcinoma. Cancer 103:1615–1624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sieber PR, Keiller DL, Kahnoski RJ, Gallo J, McFadden S (2004) Bicalutamide 150 mg maintains bone mineral density during monotherapy for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. J Urol 171:2272–2276, quiz 2435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Smith MR, Goode M, Zietman AL, McGovern FJ, Lee H, Finkelstein JS (2004) Bicalutamide monotherapy versus leuprolide monotherapy for prostate cancer: effects on bone mineral density and body composition. J Clin Oncol 22:2546–2553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Allain TJ (2006) Prostate cancer, osteoporosis and fracture risk. Gerontology 52:107–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McLeod N, Huynh CC, Rashid P (2006) Osteoporosis from androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer treatment. Aust Fam Physician 35:243–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Moyad MA (2003) Osteoporosis and prostate cancer. Urol Oncol 21:374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Smith MR (2003) Management of treatment-related osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 29:211–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Smith MR, Egerdie B, Hernandez Toriz N et al (2009) Denosumab in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 361:745–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ryan CJ, Molina A, Griffin T (2013) Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 368:1458–1459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Townsend MF, Sanders WH, Northway RO, Graham SD Jr (1997) Bone fractures associated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists used in the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Cancer 79:545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Adler RA (2011) Management of osteoporosis in men on androgen deprivation therapy. Maturitas 68:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Aksnes LH, Bruland OS (2007) Some musculo-skeletal sequelae in cancer survivors. Acta Oncol 46:490–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chaganti RK, Parimi N, Lang T, Orwoll E, Stefanick ML, Nevitt M, Lane NE (2010) Bone mineral density and prevalent osteoarthritis of the hip in older men for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Group. Osteoporos Int 21:1307–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Daniell HW (1997) Osteoporosis after orchiectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol 157:439–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Daniell HW, Clark JC, Pereira SE, Niazi ZA, Ferguson DW, Dunn SR, Figueroa ML, Stratte PT (2001) Hypogonadism following prostate-bed radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer 91:1889–1895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Grigsby PW, Perez CA (1986) The effects of external beam radiotherapy on endocrine function in patients with carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 135:726–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Igdem S, Alco G, Ercan T, Barlan M, Ganiyusufoglu K, Unalan B, Turkan S, Okkan S (2010) Insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77:818–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Overgaard M (1988) Spontaneous radiation-induced rib fractures in breast cancer patients treated with postmastectomy irradiation. A clinical radiobiological analysis of the influence of fraction size and dose–response relationships on late bone damage. Acta Oncol 27:117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    El Maghraoui A (2004) Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Presse Med 33:1213–1217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sambrook PN (2005) How to prevent steroid induced osteoporosis. Ann Rheum Dis 64:176–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sambrook PN, Diamond T, Ferris L, Fiatarone-Singh M, Flicker L, MacLennan A, Nowson C, O’Neill S, Greville H (2001) Corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. Guidelines for treatment. Aust Fam Physician 30:793–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lustberg MB, Reinbolt RE, Shapiro CL (2012) Bone health in adult cancer survivorship. J Clin Oncol 30:3665–3674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Cooper C, Rizzoli R, Reginster JY, Scientific A, Board of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) (2013) European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 24:23–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bruder JM, Ma JZ, Basler JW, Welch MD (2006) Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis by central and peripheral bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer during androgen-deprivation therapy. Urology 67:152–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Reid DM, Doughty J, Eastell R, Heys SD, Howell A, McCloskey EV, Powles T, Selby P, Coleman RE (2008) Guidance for the management of breast cancer treatment-induced bone loss: a consensus position statement from a UK Expert Group. Cancer Treat Rev 34(Suppl 1):S3–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hillner BE, Ingle JN, Chlebowski RT et al (2003) American Society of Clinical Oncology 2003 update on the role of bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 21:4042–4057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Body JJ, Bergmann P, Boonen S, Boutsen Y, Devogelaer JP, Goemaere S, Reginster JY, Rozenberg S, Kaufman JM (2007) Management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss in early breast and prostate cancer—a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club. Osteoporos Int 18:1439–1450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hadji P, Body JJ, Aapro MS, Brufsky A, Coleman RE, Guise T, Lipton A, Tubiana-Hulin M (2008) Practical guidance for the management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss. Ann Oncol 19:1407–1416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    van den Bergh JP, van Geel TA, Lems WF, Geusens PP (2010) Assessment of individual fracture risk: FRAX and beyond. Curr Osteoporos Rep 8:131–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Watts NB (2011) The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(R)): applications in clinical practice. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 20:525–531Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kanis JA, Hans D, Cooper C et al (2011) Interpretation and use of FRAX in clinical practice. Osteoporos Int 22:2395–2411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Oden A, Strom O, Borgstrom F (2010) Development and use of FRAX in osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 21(Suppl 2):S407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Saylor PJ, Kaufman DS, Michaelson MD, Lee RJ, Smith MR (2010) Application of a fracture risk algorithm to men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 183:2200–2205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cameron ID, Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Murray GR, Hill KD, Cumming RG, Kerse N (2012) Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12, CD005465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Karlsson MK, Magnusson H, von Schewelov T, Rosengren BE (2013) Prevention of falls in the elderly—a review. Osteoporos Int 24:747–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vasikaran S, Eastell R, Bruyere O et al (2011) Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment: a need for international reference standards. Osteoporos Int 22:391–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A et al (2004) A family history of fracture and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Bone 35:1029–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Klotzbuecher CM, Ross PD, Landsman PB, Abbott TA 3rd, Berger M (2000) Patients with prior fractures have an increased risk of future fractures: a summary of the literature and statistical synthesis. J Bone Miner Res 15:721–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    McCloskey EV, Vasireddy S, Threlkeld J, Eastaugh J, Parry A, Bonnet N, Beneton M, Kanis JA, Charlesworth D (2008) Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) with a densitometer predicts future fractures in elderly women unselected for osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 23:1561–1568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Diamond TH, Bucci J, Kersley JH, Aslan P, Lynch WB, Bryant C (2004) Osteoporosis and spinal fractures in men with prostate cancer: risk factors and effects of androgen deprivation therapy. J Urol 172:529–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Costelloe CM, Rohren EM, Madewell JE et al (2009) Imaging bone metastases in breast cancer: techniques and recommendations for diagnosis. Lancet Oncol 10:606–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bristow RG (2008) Biomarkers of clinical trials using molecular inhibitors and radiotherapy: state-of-the-art. Preface. Cancer Metastasis Rev 27:337–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Steinborn MM, Heuck AF, Tiling R, Bruegel M, Gauger L, Reiser MF (1999) Whole-body bone marrow MRI in patients with metastatic disease to the skeletal system. J Comput Assist Tomogr 23:123–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Shie P, Cardarelli R, Brandon D, Erdman W, Abdulrahim N (2008) Meta-analysis: comparison of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Clin Nucl Med 33:97–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yang HL, Liu T, Wang XM, Xu Y, Deng SM (2011) Diagnosis of bone metastases: a meta-analysis comparing (1)(8)FDG PET, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy. Eur Radiol 21:2604–2617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cook GJ (2010) PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases. Cancer Imaging 10:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Keaveny TM, Kopperdahl DL, Melton LJ 3rd, Hoffmann PF, Amin S, Riggs BL, Khosla S (2010) Age-dependence of femoral strength in white women and men. J Bone Miner Res 25:994–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Keyak JH, Kaneko TS, Rossi SA, Pejcic MR, Tehranzadeh J, Skinner HB (2005) Predicting the strength of femoral shafts with and without metastatic lesions. Clin Orthop Relat Res 439:161–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tanck E, van Aken JB, van der Linden YM, Schreuder HW, Binkowski M, Huizenga H, Verdonschot N (2009) Pathological fracture prediction in patients with metastatic lesions can be improved with quantitative computed tomography based computer models. Bone 45:777–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Dearnaley DP, Mason MD, Parmar MK, Sanders K, Sydes MR (2009) Adjuvant therapy with oral sodium clodronate in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: long-term overall survival results from the MRC PR04 and PR05 randomised controlled trials. Lancet Oncol 10:872–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM et al (2010) First-line treatment with zoledronic acid as compared with clodronic acid in multiple myeloma (MRC Myeloma IX): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 376:1989–1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wong MH, Stockler MR, Pavlakis N (2012) Bisphosphonates and other bone agents for breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2, CD003474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kohno N, Aogi K, Minami H, Nakamura S, Asaga T, Iino Y, Watanabe T, Goessl C, Ohashi Y, Takashima S (2005) Zoledronic acid significantly reduces skeletal complications compared with placebo in Japanese women with bone metastases from breast cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 23:3314–3321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Coleman RE, Marshall H, Cameron D et al (2011) Breast-cancer adjuvant therapy with zoledronic acid. N Engl J Med 365:1396–1405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Schippinger W et al (2009) Endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med 360:679–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lipton A, Siena S, Rader M, Bilynsky B, Viniegra M, Richardson G, Beuzeboc P, Clemens MR, Ke C, Jun S (2010) Comparison of denosumab versus zoledronioc acid (za) for treatment of bone diseases in advanced cancer patients: an integrated analysis of 3 pivotal trials. Annal Oncol 21(viii):379Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    MacKenzie M, Quinton-Gladstone C, Haynes AE, Hotte S (2010) Zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma. Toronto (ON): Cancer Care Ontario program in Evidence-based Care CED-CCO Special Advice Report No 18Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Möbus V, Diel IJ, Harbeck N, et al. (2011) GAIN Study: a phase III trial to compare ETC. vs. EC-TX and Ibandronate vs. observation in patients with node-positive primary breast cancer- 1st interim efficacy analysis. 34th annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    S0307 Zoledronate, Clodronate, or Ibandronate in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer. http://clinicaltrialsgov/ct2/show/NCT00127205?term=s0307&rank=2. Accessed June 2013
  136. 136.
    Saad F, Gleason DM, Murray R, Tchekmedyian S, Venner P, Lacombe L, Chin JL, Vinholes JJ, Goas JA, Chen B (2002) A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1458–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body JJ et al (2010) Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. J Clin Oncol 28:5132–5139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fizazi K, Carducci M, Smith M et al (2011) Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet 377:813–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Smith MR (2011) Denosumab to prevent bone metastasis-free survival in men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer: results of a global Phase 3, randomised, double-blind trial. AUA meeting Washington DC: Oral presentationGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Henry DH, Costa L, Goldwasser F et al (2011) Randomized, double-blind study of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer (excluding breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol 29:1125–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Brown JE, Barrios CH, Diel IJ et al (2010) Incidence and outcomes of osteonecrosis of the jaw from an integrated analysis of three pivotal randomized double-blind, double-dummy phase 3 trials comparing denosumab and zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in advanced cancer patients or myeloma. Bone Suppl 1:S18–S19Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Doyle C, Kushi LH, Byers T et al (2006) Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices. CA Cancer J Clin 56:323–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schmitz KH, Courneya KS, Matthews C et al (2010) American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:1409–1426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    WCRF/AICR (2007) Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective expert report. WCRF/AICR, LondonGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Holick MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357:266–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, Satoh K (2005) Amelioration of osteoporosis and hypovitaminosis D by sunlight exposure in hospitalized, elderly women with Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 20:1327–1333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Brufsky A, Bundred N, Coleman R, Lambert-Falls R, Mena R, Hadji P, Jin L, Schenk N, Ericson S, Perez EA (2008) Integrated analysis of zoledronic acid for prevention of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole. Oncologist 13:503–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Geisler J, Lonning PE, Krag LE et al (2006) Changes in bone and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer after terminating 2-year treatment with exemestane: a randomised, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Cancer 42:2968–2975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Neuhouser ML, Sorensen B, Hollis BW et al (2008) Vitamin D insufficiency in a multiethnic cohort of breast cancer survivors. Am J Clin Nutr 88:133–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Napoli N, Vattikuti S, Ma C, Rastelli A, Rayani A, Donepudi R, Asadfard M, Yarramaneni J, Ellis M, Armamento-Villareal R (2010) High prevalence of low vitamin D and musculoskeletal complaints in women with breast cancer. Breast J 16:609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rastelli AL, Taylor ME, Gao F, Armamento-Villareal R, Jamalabadi-Majidi S, Napoli N, Ellis MJ (2011) Vitamin D and aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS): a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 129:107–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rizzoli R, Boonen S, Brandi ML, Bruyere O, Cooper C, Kanis JA, Kaufman JM, Ringe JD, Weryha G, Reginster JY (2013) Vitamin D supplementation in elderly or postmenopausal women: a 2013 update of the 2008 recommendations from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). Curr Med Res Opin 29(4):305–313Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Bolland MJ, Grey A, Reid IR (2013) Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk in the Women’s Health Initiative. Osteoporos Int 24(8): 2371−2372Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Van Poznak CH, Temin S, Yee GC et al (2011) American Society of Clinical Oncology executive summary of the clinical practice guideline update on the role of bone-modifying agents in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 29:1221–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Rizzoli R (2011) Bisphosphonates for post-menopausal osteoporosis: are they all the same? QJM 104:281–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Delmas PD, Balena R, Confravreux E, Hardouin C, Hardy P, Bremond A (1997) Bisphosphonate risedronate prevents bone loss in women with artificial menopause due to chemotherapy of breast cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Oncol 15:955–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fuleihan Gel H, Salamoun M, Mourad YA, Chehal A, Salem Z, Mahfoud Z, Shamseddine A (2005) Pamidronate in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced bone loss in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3209–3214Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hershman DL, McMahon DJ, Crew KD, Cremers S, Irani D, Cucchiara G, Brafman L, Shane E (2008) Zoledronic acid prevents bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:4739–4745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hershman DL, McMahon DJ, Crew KD, Shao T, Cremers S, Brafman L, Awad D, Shane E (2010) Prevention of bone loss by zoledronic acid in premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy persist up to one year following discontinuing treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:559–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kim JE, Ahn JH, Jung KH et al (2011) Zoledronic acid prevents bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: a phase III trial of the Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG-BR06-01). Breast Cancer Res Treat 125:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Powles TJ, McCloskey E, Paterson AH, Ashley S, Tidy VA, Nevantaus A, Rosenqvist K, Kanis J (1998) Oral clodronate and reduction in loss of bone mineral density in women with operable primary breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:704–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Saarto T, Blomqvist C, Valimaki M, Makela P, Sarna S, Elomaa I (1997) Chemical castration induced by adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy causes rapid bone loss that is reduced by clodronate: a randomized study in premenopausal breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 15:1341–1347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Shapiro CL, Halabi S, Hars V et al (2011) Zoledronic acid preserves bone mineral density in premenopausal women who develop ovarian failure due to adjuvant chemotherapy: final results from CALGB trial 79809. Eur J Cancer 47:683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Vehmanen L, Saarto T, Elomaa I, Makela P, Valimaki M, Blomqvist C (2001) Long-term impact of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure on bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal breast cancer patients. The effect of adjuvant clodronate treatment. Eur J Cancer 37:2373–2378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Van Poznak C, Hannon RA, Mackey JR, Campone M, Apffelstaedt JP, Clack G, Barlow D, Makris A, Eastell R (2010) Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss using risedronate: the SABRE trial. J Clin Oncol 28:967–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lester JE, Dodwell D, Purohit OP, Gutcher SA, Ellis SP, Thorpe R, Horsman JM, Brown JE, Hannon RA, Coleman RE (2008) Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 14:6336–6342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Greenspan SL, Resnick NM, Nelson JB (2006) Once weekly oral alendronate prevents bone loss in men on androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 175(suppl 4):975, abstractGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Taxel P, Dowsett R, Richter L, Fall P, Klepinger A, Albertsen P (2010) Risedronate prevents early bone loss and increased bone turnover in the first 6 months of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-agonist therapy for prostate cancer. BJU Int 106:1473–1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Michaelson MD, Kaufman DS, Lee H, McGovern FJ, Kantoff PW, Fallon MA, Finkelstein JS, Smith MR (2007) Randomized controlled trial of annual zoledronic acid to prevent gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 25:1038–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ellis GK, Bone HG, Chlebowski R, Paul D, Spadafora S, Fan M, Kim D (2009) Effect of denosumab on bone mineral density in women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for non-metastatic breast cancer: subgroup analyses of a phase 3 study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 118:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ellis GK, Bone HG, Chlebowski R, Paul D, Spadafora S, Smith J, Fan M, Jun S (2008) Randomized trial of denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for nonmetastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:4875–4882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Study to determine treatment effects of denosumab in patients with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy. http://wwwclinicaltrialsgov/ct2/show/NCT00556374?term=denosumab+and+cancer&rank=10. Accessed June 2013
  173. 173.
    Saad F, Smith MR, Egerdie B, Tammela TL, Feldman RA, Heracek J, Szwedowski M, Ke C, Leder B, Goessl C (2009) Denosumab for prevention of fractures in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:15s, abstract 5056Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Smith MR, Morton RA, Barnette KG, Sieber PR, Malkowicz SB, Rodriguez D, Hancock ML, Steiner MS (2010) Toremifene to reduce fracture risk in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 184:1316–1321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Smith MR, Fallon MA, Lee H, Finkelstein JS (2004) Raloxifene to prevent gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3841–3846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kyle RA, Yee GC, Somerfield MR et al (2007) American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 clinical practice guideline update on the role of bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol 25:2464–2472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Terpos E, Morgan G, Dimopoulos MA et al (2013) International myeloma working group recommendations for the treatment of multiple myeloma-related bone disease. J Clin Oncol 31:2347–2357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Van Poznak CH, Von Roenn JH, Temin S (2011) American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update: recommendations on the role of bone-modifying agents in metastatic breast cancer. J Oncol Pract 7:117–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lentle B, Cheung AM, Hanley DA, et al. (2011) Osteoporosis Canada 2010 Guidelines for the Assessment of Fracture Risk. Can Assoc Radiol J 62(4):243−250Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Leslie WD, Schousboe JT (2011) A review of osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment options in new and recently updated guidelines on case finding around the world. Curr Osteoporos Rep 9:129–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Papaioannou A, Morin S, Cheung AM et al (2010) 2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada: summary. CMAJ 182:1864–1873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Watts NB, Bilezikian JP, Camacho PM et al (2010) American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Pract 16(Suppl 3):1–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Coleman R, Costa L, Saad F et al (2011) Consensus on the utility of bone markers in the malignant bone disease setting. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 80:411–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Chines A, Garnero P, Delmas PD (2003) Relationship of early changes in bone resorption to the reduction in fracture risk with risedronate. J Bone Miner Res 18:1051–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hannon R, Eastell R (2000) Preanalytical variability of biochemical markers of bone turnover. Osteoporos Int 11(Suppl 6):S30–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Watts NB, Lewiecki EM, Bonnick SL et al (2009) Clinical value of monitoring BMD in patients treated with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 24:1643–1646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Hadji P, Aapro MS, Body JJ, Bundred NJ, Brufsky A, Coleman RE, Gnant M, Guise T, Lipton A (2011) Management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: practical guidance for prevention and treatment. Ann Oncol 22:2546–2555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Bolla M et al (2011) EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol 59:572–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Aapro M, Abrahamsson PA, Body JJ et al (2008) Guidance on the use of bisphosphonates in solid tumours: recommendations of an international expert panel. Ann Oncol 19:420–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Body JJ, Coleman R, Clezardin P, Ripamonti C, Rizzoli R, Aapro M, International Society of Geriatric Oncology (2007) International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) clinical practice recommendations for the use of bisphosphonates in elderly patients. Eur J Cancer 43:852–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Coleman RE, Bertelli G, Beaumont T, Kunkler I, Miles D, Simmonds PD, Jones AL, Smith IE (2012) UK guidance document: treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 24:169–176Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bird JM, Owen RG, D’Sa S et al (2011) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma 2011. Br J Haematol 154:32–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Terpos E, Sezer O, Croucher PI et al (2009) The use of bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma: recommendations of an expert panel on behalf of the European Myeloma Network. Ann Oncol 20:1303–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lacy MQ, Dispenzieri A, Gertz MA et al (2006) Mayo clinic consensus statement for the use of bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin Proc 81:1047–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2012) NCCN Guidelines version 1.2012 Multiple Myeloma.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Harrouseau JL, Greil R, Kloke O, Force EGT (2005) ESMO Minimum Clinical Recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of multiple myeloma. Ann Oncol 16(Suppl 1):i45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Grossmann M, Hamilton EJ, Gilfillan C, Bolton D, Joon DL, Zajac JD (2011) Bone and metabolic health in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer who are receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Med J Aust 194:301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Saad F, Higano CS, Sartor O, Colombel M, Murray R, Mason MD, Tubaro A, Schulman C (2006) The role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of prostate cancer: recommendations from an expert panel. Clin Genitourin Cancer 4:257–262PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rizzoli
    • 1
  • J.-J. Body
    • 2
  • M.-L. Brandi
    • 3
  • J. Cannata-Andia
    • 4
  • D. Chappard
    • 5
  • A. El Maghraoui
    • 6
  • C. C. Glüer
    • 7
  • D. Kendler
    • 8
  • N. Napoli
    • 9
  • A. Papaioannou
    • 10
  • D. D. Pierroz
    • 11
  • M. Rahme
    • 12
  • C. H. Van Poznak
    • 13
  • T. J. de Villiers
    • 14
  • G. El Hajj Fuleihan
    • 12
  • for the International Osteoporosis Foundation Committee of Scientific Advisors Working Group on Cancer-Induced Bone Disease
  1. 1.Division of Bone DiseasesGeneva University Hospitals and Faculty of MedicineGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, CHU BrugmannUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Bone and Mineral Research Unit, Instituto Reina Sofía, REDinREN, ISCIII, Hospital Universario Central de AsturiasUniversidad de OviedoOviedoSpain
  5. 5.GEROM-Research Group on Bone Remodeling and bioMaterialsLUNAM UniversityAngersFrance
  6. 6.Rheumatology DepartmentMilitary Hospital Mohammed VRabatMorocco
  7. 7.Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Diagnostische RadiologieUniversitätsklinikum Schleswig-HolsteinKielGermany
  8. 8.Department of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  9. 9.Division of EndocrinologyUniversity Campus Bio-MedicoRomeItaly
  10. 10.Department of MedicineMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  11. 11.International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF)NyonSwitzerland
  12. 12.Calcium Metabolism and Osteoporosis Program, WHO Collaborating Center for Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone DisordersAmerican University of Beirut Medical CenterBeirutLebanon
  13. 13.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  14. 14.Panorama MediClinic and Department of Gynaecology, Faculty of Health SciencesStellenbosch UniversityCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations