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Osteoporosis International

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 2369–2379 | Cite as

Relative impact of neuromuscular and cardiovascular factors on bone strength index of the hemiparetic distal radius epiphysis among individuals with chronic stroke

  • M. Y. C. PangEmail author
  • A. Q. Cheng
  • D. E. Warburton
  • A. Y. M. Jones
Original

Abstract

Summary

The objective of this study was to examine the associations of neuromuscular and cardiovascular impairments with the bone strength index of the hemiparetic distal radius epiphysis in chronic stroke survivors. The results showed that grip strength is the most predominant predictor of the bone strength index.

Introduction

The pupose of the study was to examine the associations of neuromuscular and cardiovascular impairments with the bone strength index of the hemiparetic distal radius epiphysis in chronic stroke survivors.

Methods

Sixty-five chronic stroke survivors and 34 healthy control subjects underwent scanning of the distal radius epiphyseal site on both sides using peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (mg/cm3), total vBMD (mg/cm3), total area (mm2), and compressive bone strength index (cBSI) (g2/cm4). Various indicators of neuromuscular (grip strength, spasticity) and cardiovascular function (vascular elasticity, oxygen consumption during 6-min walk test) were evaluated.

Results

Analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of side (p < 0.001) and group × side interaction (p < 0.05) for total BMC, total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, and cBSI (p < 0.05), with the stroke group showing greater side-to-side difference in these variables. However, no significant side-to-side difference in total area was detected in either group (p > 0.05). Sex-specific analysis yielded similar results. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the cBSI of the hemiparetic distal radius epiphysis had a stronger association with neuromuscular factors than cardiovascular factors. Overall, grip strength was the strongest determinant of the cBSI of the hemiparetic distal radius epiphysis (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Muscle weakness is the most predominant determinant of cBSI in the hemiparetic distal radius epiphysis among chronic stroke patients. Future studies should investigate the efficacy of different muscle-strengthening strategies in enhancing bone strength of this skeletal site in the chronic stroke population.

Keywords

Cerebrovascular accident Hemiplegia Muscle Osteoporosis Rehabilitation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

AQC was supported by a Research Studentship provided by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. This study was supported by research grants from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (87-SK), and Research Grants Council (General Research Fund no. 525607, no. 526708).

Conflicts of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Y. C. Pang
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Q. Cheng
    • 1
  • D. E. Warburton
    • 2
  • A. Y. M. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation SciencesHong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHung HomChina
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Physiology and Rehabilitation LaboratoryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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