Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Heel bone mass of a young South Indian population with a Nigerian population residing in a South Indian suburban neighborhood: a comparative study

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Osteoporosis International Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Summary

This cross-sectional cohort emphasized the impact of heel bone mass in the South Indian population and its comparison with Nigerian ethnicity, residing in South India. Peak bone mass, however, evidenced a significant decrease of around 30% compared to that of Nigerian ethnicity.

Introduction

In the South Indian population, the local folks do not seem to be well informed about the relative association of bone mass with osteoporosis. Hence, there is an acute necessity to assess the same with respect to the ethnic population, presumed to have possessed high bone mass, i.e., the Nigerian population.

Methods

The calcaneus of the right foot was measured with a quantitative ultrasound device (Sahara, Hologic Inc., USA) for a total population of 734, out of which 314 were Indian males, 348 Indian females, 41 Nigerian males, and 30 Nigerian females, whose ages ranged from 18 to 35 years.

Results

The peak bone mass in Indian males and females is 0.507 ± 0.1 and 0.479 ± 0.1 g cm−2, respectively, and it is 0.714 ± 0.2 and 0.682 ± 0.2 g cm−2 with regard to Nigerian male and female populations, respectively. Indian males and females who were within the age group of 26–30 and ≤20 years, respectively, represented high bone mass, and the same was the situation with respect to Nigerian counterparts who were within the age group of 21–25 years. Indian and Nigerian non-vegetarian population of both the genders demonstrated a high significance value of p < 0.000001, deciphered by means of unpaired t test.

Conclusion

Peak bone strength was dominant in the Nigerian population compared to that of Indians. The Indian population is approximately lagging by 28–30% with respect to peak bone mass behind their Nigerian equivalents. Indian non-vegetarian male and female populations lagged by 6.15% and 6.16% behind the Indian vegetarian male and female populations, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Anonymous (1993) Consensus development conference: diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 94:646–650

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Jordan KM, Cooper C (2002) Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 16(5):795–806

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Cooper C, Campion G, Melton LJ (1992) Hip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projection. Osteoporos Int 2:285–289

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Cummings RS, Black DM, Rubin SM (1989) Lifetime risk of hip, Colle's, or vertebral fracture and coronary heart disease among white postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 149(11):2445–2448

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Gullberg B, Johnell O, Kanis JA (1997) World-wide projections for hip fractures. Osteoporos Int 7:407–413

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Siris E, Delmas PD (2008) Assessment of 10-year absolute fracture risk: a new paradigm with worldwide application. Osteoporos Int 19:383–384

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Kanis JA (2002) Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet 359:1929–1936

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Kanis JA (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. WHO study group. Osteoporos Int 4:368–381

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Fujiwara S, Sone T, Yamazaki K et al (2005) Heel bone ultrasound predicts non-spine fracture in Japanese men and women. Osteoporos Int 16:2107–2112

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Huang C, Ross PD, Yates AJ et al (1998) Prediction of fracture risk by radiographic absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound: a prospective study. Calcif Tissue Int 63:380–384

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Schneider J, Bundschuh B, Spath C et al (2004) Discrimination of patients with and without vertebral fractures as measured by ultrasound and DXA osteodensitometry. Calcif Tissue Int 74:246–254

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Hartl F, Tyndall A, Kraenzlin M et al (2002) Discriminatory ability of quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 17:321–330

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Hamanaka Y, Yamamoto I, Takada M et al (1999) Comparison of bone mineral density at various skeletal sites with quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus for assessment of vertebral fractures. J Bone Miner Metab 17:195–200

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Gluer CC, Eastell R, Reid DM et al (2004) Association of five quantitative ultrasound devices and bone densitometry with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a population-based sample: the OPUS Study. J Bone Miner Res 19:782–793

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Maggi S, Noale M, Giannini S et al (2006) Quantitative heel ultrasound in a population-based study in Italy and its relationship with fracture history: the ESOPO study. Osteoporos Int 17:237–244

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Miller PD, Siris ES, Barrett-Connor E et al (2002) Prediction of fracture risk in postmenopausal white women with peripheral bone densitometry: evidence from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. J Bone Miner Res 17:2222–2230

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Min-Ho S, Sun-Seog K, Kyeong-Soo P et al (2005) Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus in a Korean population: reference data and relationship to bone mineral density determined by peripheral dual X-ray absorptiometry. J Korean Med Sci 20(6):1011–1016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. George T, Memi T, Antonios G et al (2009) Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus in Greek women: normative data are different from the manufacturer's normal range. J Clin Densitom 12(3):353–359

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. VanderJagt DJ, Damiani LA, Goodman TM et al (2004) Assessment of the skeletal health of healthy Nigerian men and women using quantitative ultrasound. Bone 35:387–394

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Larijani B, Soltani A, Keshtkar A et al (2004) Relation of reproductive factors and heel quantitative ultrasound parameters in normal women of Tehran. Iranian J Publ Health A supplementary issue on Osteoporosis: 76–81

  21. Zi-Qiang Z, Wei L, Cheng-Li X et al (2008) Reference data for quantitative ultrasound values of calcaneus in 2927 healthy Chinese men. J Bone Miner Metab 26(2):165–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Liu W, Xu CL, Zhu ZQ et al (2006) Bone density of calcaneus of 2769 healthy persons in Zhejiang province. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 86(13):891–895

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Wehbel J, Cortbaoui C, Chidiac RM et al (2003) Age-associated changes in quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) of the os calcis in Lebanese women—assessment of a Lebanese reference population. J Musculoskelet Neuron Interact 3(3):232–239

    Google Scholar 

  24. Abe Y, Takamura N, Ye Z et al (2011) Quantitative ultrasound and radiographic absorptiometry are associated with vertebral deformity in Japanese Women: the Hizen-Oshima study. Osteoporos Int 22(4):1167–1173

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Meybodi HRA, Hemmat-abadi M, Heshmat R et al (2011) Association between anthropometric measures and bone mineral density: population-based study. Iran J Publ Health 40(2):18–24

    Google Scholar 

  26. Sanlie N, Koksal E (2011) Comparison of nutritional, biochemical and anthropometric measures as comparative risk factors between young and postmenopausal women. Pak J Med Sci 27(2):333–338

    Google Scholar 

  27. Iida T, Chikamura C, Aoi S et al (2010) A study on the validity of quantitative ultrasonic measurement used the bone mineral density values on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in young and in middle-aged or older women. Radiol Phys Technol 3(2):113–119

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Zagarins SE, Ronnenberg AG, Gehlbach SH et al (2010) The association of lean mass and fat mass with peak bone mass in young premenopausal women. J Clin Densitom 13(4):392–398

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Uenishi K, Nakamura K (2010) Intake of dairy products and bone ultrasound measurement in late adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional study in Japan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19(3):432–439

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Wang Q, Nicholson PH, Timonen J et al (2008) Monitoring bone growth using quantitative ultrasound in comparison with DXA and pQCT. J Clin Densitom 11(2):295–301

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Weeks BK, Young CM, Beck BR (2008) Eight months of regular in-school jumping improves indices of bone strength in adolescent boys and girls: the POWER PE study. J Bone Miner Res 23(7):1002–1011

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Maggi S, Noale M, Gonnelli S et al (2007) Quantitative ultrasound calcaneus measurements: normative data for the Italian population, the ESOPO Study. J Clin Densitom 10(3):340–346

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Lim PS, Ong FB, Adeeb N, Seri SS, Noor-Aini MY, Shamsuddin K, Hapizah N, Mohamed AL, Mokhtar A, Wan HWH (2005) Bone health in urban midlife Malaysian women: risk factors and prevention. Osteoporos Int 16:2069–2079

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their gratitude to the health care authorities of SRM Hospital and Research Centre for providing the required facilitative infrastructure. They also wish to thank Mr. Kishore Mohan, Research Scholar, as well as final year M. Tech students of Biomedical Engineering (2009 to 2011 batch), SRM University, for their kind support and help.

Conflicts of interest

None.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Sapthagirivasan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sapthagirivasan, V., Anburajan, M. Heel bone mass of a young South Indian population with a Nigerian population residing in a South Indian suburban neighborhood: a comparative study. Osteoporos Int 23, 2661–2669 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-012-1898-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-012-1898-9

Keywords

Navigation