Osteoporosis International

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 949–955 | Cite as

Incidence of hip fracture and prevalence of osteoporosis in Turkey: the FRACTURK study

  • S. TuzunEmail author
  • N. Eskiyurt
  • U. Akarirmak
  • M. Saridogan
  • M. Senocak
  • H. Johansson
  • J. A. Kanis
  • Turkish Osteoporosis Society
Original Article



The incidence of hip fractures in Turkey increased markedly from that reported in 1988/1989 so that FRAX® models for Turkey should be revised.


The MEDOS study in 1988/1989 reported that men and women from Turkey had exceptionally low rates of hip fracture. The aim of the FRACTURK study was to estimate current and future hip fracture risks and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Turkey.


Hip fracture cases in 2009 were identified from interviews of a population-based sample of 26,424 residents aged 50 years or more in 12 different regions of Turkey and in two hospital surveys. Bone mineral density was evaluated by DXA in an age-stratified sample of 1,965 men and women.


Hip fracture incidence in the community-based survey was similar to that in the hospital survey. The age-specific incidence in men and women was substantially higher than that reported for 1988/1989. At the age of 50 years, the remaining lifetime probability of a hip fracture was 3.5% in men and 14.6% in women. In 2009, there were approximately 24,000 hip fractures estimated in Turkey, 73% of which were found in women. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures was expected to increase to nearly 64,000 in 2035. The prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck was 7.5% and 33.3% in men and women, respectively, aged 50 years or more.


Although Turkey is still among the countries with low hip fracture rates in Europe, the incidence has increased markedly in the last 20 years. This finding can be used to recalibrate fracture risk assessment models for Turkey.


Bone mineral density Epidemiology FRAX Osteoporosis Prevalence 



This study was funded and promoted by the Turkish Osteoporosis Society. We are also grateful to Sanofi–Aventis, Roche, Novartis and MSD for their financial support. We would like to thank to Mr. Erkan Pekerkan and Mrs. Emine Pekerkan from Analyst Medical Marketing Research Ltd. for their great work and kind support during the study.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Tuzun
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. Eskiyurt
    • 2
  • U. Akarirmak
    • 1
  • M. Saridogan
    • 1
  • M. Senocak
    • 3
  • H. Johansson
    • 4
  • J. A. Kanis
    • 4
  • Turkish Osteoporosis Society
  1. 1.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Cerrahpaşa School of MedicineIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, İstanbul School of MedicineIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Biostatistics Department, Cerrahpaşa School of MedicineIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, Medical SchoolUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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