Osteoporosis International

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1621–1626 | Cite as

The effect of acute exercise on undercarboxylated osteocalcin in obese men

  • I. Levinger
  • R. Zebaze
  • G. Jerums
  • D. L. Hare
  • S. Selig
  • E. Seeman
Short Communication

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of this study was to examine if the reduction in glucose post-exercise is mediated by undercarboxylated osteocalcin (unOC). Obese men were randomly assigned to do aerobic or power exercises. The change in unOC levels was correlated with the change in glucose levels post-exercise. The reduction in glucose post-acute exercise may be partly related to increased unOC.

Introduction

Osteocalcin (OC) in its undercarboxylated (unOC) form may contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis. As exercise reduces serum glucose and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we hypothesised that this benefit was partly mediated by unOC.

Methods

Twenty-eight middle-aged (52.4 ± 1.2 years, mean ± SEM), obese (BMI = 32.1 ± 0.9 kg m−2) men were randomly assigned to do either 45 min of aerobic (cycling at 75% of VO2peak) or power (leg press at 75% of one repetition maximum plus jumping sequence) exercises. Blood samples were taken at baseline and up to 2 h post-exercise.

Results

At baseline, unOC was negatively correlated with glucose levels (r = −0.53, p = 0.003) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (r = −0.37, p = 0.035). Both aerobic and power exercises reduced serum glucose (from 7.4 ± 1.2 to 5.1 ± 0.5 mmol L−1, p = 0.01 and 8.5 ± 1.2 to 6.0 ± 0.6 mmol L−1, p = 0.01, respectively). Aerobic exercise significantly increased OC, unOC and high-molecular-weight adiponectin, while power exercise had a limited effect on OC and unOC. Overall, those with higher baseline glucose and HbA1c had greater reductions in glucose levels after exercise (r = −0.46, p = 0.013 and r = −0.43, p = 0.019, respectively). In a sub-group of obese people with T2DM, the percentage change in unOC levels was correlated with the percentage change in glucose levels post-exercise (r = −0.51, p = 0.038).

Conclusions

This study reports that the reduction in serum glucose post-acute exercise (especially aerobic exercise) may be partly related to increased unOC.

Keywords

Bone metabolism Exercise Glycaemic control Obesity Undercarboxylated osteocalcin 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank Dr. Thuy Vu for her assistance in recruitment and screening of volunteers. This study was partly funded by the Helen Macpherson Smith Trust and Victoria University Development Grant.

Conflicts of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Confavreux CB, Levine RL, Karsenty G (2009) A paradigm of integrative physiology, the crosstalk between bone and energy metabolisms. Mol Cell Endocrinol 310:21–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rached MT, Kode A, Silva BC, Jung DY, Gray S, Ong H, Paik JH, DePinho RA, Kim JK, Karsenty G, Kousteni S (2010) FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts regulates glucose homeostasis through regulation of osteocalcin in mice. J Clin Invest 120:357–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee NK, Sowa H, Hinoi E, Ferron M, Ahn JD, Confavreux C, Dacquin R, Mee PJ, McKee MD, Jung DY, Zhang Z, Kim JK, Mauvais-Jarvis F, Ducy P, Karsenty G (2007) Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton. Cell 130:456–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fisher FF, Trujillo ME, Hanif W, Barnett AH, McTernan PG, Scherer PE, Kumar S (2005) Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males. Diabetologia 48:1084–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yano S, Yamauchi M, Yamamoto M, Sugimoto T (2007) Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. BMC Cell Biol 8:51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frosig C, Rose AJ, Treebak JT, Kiens B, Richter EA, Wojtaszewski JF (2007) Effects of endurance exercise training on insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle: interactions at the level of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and AS160. Diabetes 56:2093–2102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oguri M, Adachi H, Ohno T, Oshima S, Kurabayashi M (2009) Effect of a single bout of moderate exercise on glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Cardiol 53:8–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levinger I, Goodman C, Hare DL, Jerums G, Selig S (2007) The effect of resistance training on functional capacity and quality of life in individuals with high and low numbers of metabolic risk factors. Diab Care 30:2205–2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vergnaud P, Garnero P, Meunier PJ, Breart G, Kamihagi K, Delmas PD (1997) Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:719–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shiraki M, Yamazaki Y, Shiraki Y, Hosoi T, Tsugawa N, Okano T (2010) High level of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin in patients with incident fractures during bisphosphonate treatment. J Bone Miner Metab (in press)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferron M, Hinoi E, Karsenty G, Ducy P (2008) Osteocalcin differentially regulates beta cell and adipocyte gene expression and affects the development of metabolic diseases in wild-type mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:5266–5270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fernandez-Real JM, Izquierdo M, Ortega F, Gorostiaga E, Gomez-Ambrosi J, Moreno-Navarrete JM, Fruhbeck G, Martinez C, Idoate F, Salvador J, Forga L, Ricart W, Ibanez J (2009) The relationship of serum osteocalcin concentration to insulin secretion, sensitivity, and disposal with hypocaloric diet and resistance training. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hwang YC, Jeong IK, Ahn KJ, Chung HY (2009) The uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin is associated with improved glucose tolerance and enhanced beta-cell function in middle-aged male subjects. Diab Metab Res Rev 25:768–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rong H, Berg U, Torring O, Sundberg CJ, Granberg B, Bucht E (1997) Effect of acute endurance and strength exercise on circulating calcium-regulating hormones and bone markers in young healthy males. Scand J Med Sci Sports 7:152–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grimston SK, Tanguay KE, Gundberg CM, Hanley DA (1993) The calciotropic hormone response to changes in serum calcium during exercise in female long distance runners. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76:867–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Welsh L, Rutherford OM, James I, Crowley C, Comer M, Wolman R (1997) The acute effects of exercise on bone turnover. Int J Sports Med 18:247–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tosun A, Bolukbasi N, Cingi E, Beyazova M, Unlu M (2006) Acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise with or without weight-lifting on bone turnover in healthy young women. Mod Rheumatol 16:300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frosig C, Richter EA (2009) Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise: focus on insulin signaling. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17(Suppl 3):S15–S20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merry TL, McConell GK (2009) Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise: a focus on reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signaling. IUBMB Life 61:479–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Magkos F, Mohammed BS, Mittendorfer B (2010) Enhanced insulin sensitivity after acute exercise is not associated with changes in high-molecular weight adiponectin concentration in plasma. Eur J Endocrinol 162:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Leary VB, Jorett AE, Marchetti CM, Gonzalez F, Phillips SA, Ciaraldi TP, Kirwan JP (2007) Enhanced adiponectin multimer ratio and skeletal muscle adiponectin receptor expression following exercise training and diet in older insulin-resistant adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E421–E427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fatouros IG, Chatzinikolaou A, Tournis S, Nikolaidis MG, Jamurtas AZ, Douroudos II, Papassotiriou I, Thomakos PM, Taxildaris K, Mastorakos G, Mitrakou A (2009) Intensity of resistance exercise determines adipokine and resting energy expenditure responses in overweight elderly individuals. Diab Care 32:2161–2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Levinger
    • 1
    • 4
  • R. Zebaze
    • 2
  • G. Jerums
    • 2
  • D. L. Hare
    • 3
  • S. Selig
    • 1
  • E. Seeman
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Sport, Exercise and Active Living, School of Sport and Exercise ScienceVictoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyUniversity of Melbourne, Austin HealthMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyUniversity of Melbourne, Austin HealthMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.School of Sport and Exercise ScienceVictoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations