Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women
We determined whether the effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and falls can be enhanced by whole body vibration (WBV). In summary, the multi-purpose exercise training was effective to increase lumbar BMD but added WBV did not enhance this effect. However, falls were lowest in the exercise program combined with WBV.
WBV is a new approach to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. In the “Erlangen Longitudinal Vibration Study” (ELVIS), we investigated whether WBV enhances the effect of multifunctional exercise on BMD and falls.
One hundred fifty-one postmenopausal women (68.5 ± 3.1 years) were randomly assigned to a: (1) conventional training group (TG); (2) conventional training group including vibration (TGV); and (3) wellness control group (CG). TG conducted an exercise program consisting of 20 min dancing aerobics, 5 min balance training, 20 min functional gymnastics, and 15 min dynamic leg-strength training on vibration plates (without vibration) twice a week. TGV performed an identical exercise regimen with vibration (25–35 Hz) during the leg-strengthening sequence. CG performed a low-intensity wellness program. BMD was measured at the hip and lumbar spine at baseline and follow-up using the DXA method. Falls were recorded daily via the calendar method.
After 18 months, an increase in BMD at the lumbar spine was observed in both training groups (TGV: +1.5% vs. TG: +2.1%). The difference between the TG and the CG (1.7%) was significant. At the hip no changes were determined in either group. The fall frequency was significantly lower in TGV (0.7 falls/person) compared with CG (1.5), whereas the difference between TG (0.96) and CG was not significant.
A multifunctional training program had a positive impact on lumbar BMD. The application of vibration did not enhance these effects. However, only the training including WBV affected the number of falls significantly.
KeywordsBMD Exercise Osteoporosis Postmenopausal women Training WBV
This work was supported by the Elsbeth Bonhoff foundation, Germany, and Siemens Betriebskrankenkasse (SBK) Erlangen, Germany. We gratefully acknowledge the help of Opfermann (Wiehl, Germany) who supplied Ca and Vit-D (CALCIGEN®). Further we thank mtd-Systems® (Neuburg v. Wald, Germany), who supplied the force measuring plates and the BVS Boyern.
Conflicts of interest
- 1.Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cumming RG, Rowe BH (2009) Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD007146Google Scholar
- 12.Verschueren SM, Roelants M, Delecluse C, Swinnen S, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S (2004) Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Bone Miner Res 19:352–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Sigrist M, Lammel C, Jeschke D (2006) Krafttraining an konventionellen bzw. oszillierenden Geräten und Wirbelsäulengymnastik in der Prävention der Osteoporose bei postemenopausalen Frauen. Dtsch Z Sportmed 57:182–188Google Scholar
- 16.Verschueren S, Bogaerts A, Delecluse C, Claessens AL, Boonen S (2006) Effects of one year vibration loading on muscle strength and hip density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 21:(Suppl):S152Google Scholar
- 18.von Stengel S, Kemmler W, Engelke K, Kalender W (2010) Effect of whole body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition for females 65 years and older. Scand J Med Sci Sports accepted for publicationGoogle Scholar
- 21.Mori S, Tuji S, Kawamoto M, Yamada E, Miyamato K, Tanaka S, Manabe T, Maschiba T, Yamamoto T (2006) Six month whole body vibration exercises improves leg muscle strength, balance as well as calcaneal bone mineral density of community dwelled elderly. J Bone Miner Res 21(Suppl):S249Google Scholar
- 26.Kemmler W, Engelke K (2004) A critical review of exercise training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Int Sportmed J 5:67–77Google Scholar
- 29.Rubin C, Judex S, Qin YX (2006) Low-level mechanical signals and their potential as a non-pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Age Ageing 35(Suppl):2:ii32–ii36Google Scholar
- 30.Sehmisch S, Galal R, Kolios L, Tezval M, Dullin C, Zimmer S, Stuermer KM, Stuermer EK (2009) Effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimulation in the rat osteopenia model. Osteoporos Int 10:892–893Google Scholar
- 33.Ruan XY, Jin FY, Liu YL, Peng ZL, Sun YG (2008) Effects of vibration therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Chin Med J (Engl) 121:1155–1158Google Scholar