We examined the cross-sectional association of the intakes of different types of fishes with bone mass and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women. We found that higher intake of sea fish is independently associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk among postmenopausal Chinese women.
Fish contains many important nutrients that are beneficial on bone health, but limited data on the relationship between fish intake and bone health are available. We examined the association of the intakes of different types of fishes with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and osteoporosis risk.
This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 685 postmenopausal Chinese women. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed using food frequency questionnaire. BMD and BMC at the whole body, lumbar spine, and left hip were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
After adjusting for the potential confounders, we observed dose-dependent relations between sea fish intake and BMDs, BMCs, and osteoporosis risk; the mean BMDs were 3.2–6.8% higher, and BMCs 5.1–9.4% higher in the top quintile groups (Q5) of sea fish intake than in the bottom quintile (Q1) at the whole body and hip sites (p < 0.05); the odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) for osteoporosis (T-score < −2.5) in Q5 were 0.23 (0.08–0.66), 0.12 (0.03–0.59), and 0.06 (0.01–0.44) compared with those in Q1 at the whole body, total hip, and femur neck, respectively. No independent association between consumption of freshwater fish or shellfish and bone mass was observed.
Higher intake of sea fish is independently associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk among postmenopausal Chinese women.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Andersen SJ (2007) Osteoporosis in the older woman. Clin Obstet Gynecol 50:752–766
New SA, Bonjour JP (eds) (2003) Nutritional aspects of bone health. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK
Jin SG (ed) (2008) 2002 National nutrition and health survey in Chinese residents: part 10. People’s Medical Publishing House, Beijing
He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML et al (2004) Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke 35:1538–1542
He K, Song Y, Daviglus ML et al (2004) Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Circulation 109:2705–2711
Geelen A, Schouten JM, Kamphuis C et al (2007) Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Epidemiol 166:1116–1125
Folsom AR, Demissie Z (2004) Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 160:1005–1010
Hyun TH, Barrett-Connor E, Milne DB (2004) Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Clin Nutr 80:715–721
Weiss LA, Barrett-Connor E, von Muhlen D (2005) Ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids and bone mineral density in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Clin Nutr 81:934–938
Hogstrom M, Nordstrom P, Nordstrom A (2007) n-3 Fatty acids are positively associated with peak bone mineral density and bone accrual in healthy men: the NO2 Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85:803–807
Suzuki T, Yoshida H, Hashimoto T et al (1997) Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the Japanese elderly by a Mediterranean osteoporosis study (MEDOS) questionnaire. Bone 21:461–467
Feskanich D, Willett WC, Colditz GA (2003) Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 77:504–511
Zalloua PA, Hsu YH, Terwedow H et al (2007) Impact of seafood and fruit consumption on bone mineral density. Maturitas 56:1–11
Fujiwara S, Kasagi F, Yamada M, Kodama K (1997) Risk factors for hip fracture in a Japanese cohort. J Bone Miner Res 12:998–1004
Yang YX, Wang GY, Pan XC (2002) China food composition table. Peking University Medical Press, Beijing
Resource Council, Science and Technology Agency, the Government of Japan (2000) Standard tables of food composition in Japan, 5th revised version. Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau, Tokyo
Chen YM, Ho SC, Woo JL (2006) Greater fruit and vegetable intake is associated with increased bone mass among postmenopausal Chinese women. Br J Nutr 96:745–751
Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, Ho SS, Woo JL (2003) Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4740–4747
Remer T, Manz F (1995) Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc 95:791–797
Ho SC, Chen YM, Woo JL (2005) Educational level and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women. Am J Epidemiol 161:680–690
Leslie WD, Lix LM, Tsang JF, Caetano PA (2007) Single-site vs multisite bone density measurement for fracture prediction. Arch Intern Med 167:1641–1647
Sudo A, Miyamoto N, Kasai Y, Yamakawa T, Uchida A (2003) Comparison of bone mineral density among residents of a mountain village and a fishing village in Japan. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 11:6–9
Terano T (2001) Effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ingestion on bone metabolism and osteoporosis. World Rev Nutr Diet 88:141–147
Tylavsky FA, Spence LA, Harkness L (2008) The importance of calcium, potassium, and acid-base homeostasis in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. J Nutr 138:164S–165S
Salari P, Rezaie A, Larijani B, Abdollahi M (2008) A systematic review of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in bone health and osteoporosis. Med Sci Monit 14:RA37–RA44
Sun D, Krishnan A, Zaman K, Lawrence R, Bhattacharya A, Fernandes G (2003) Dietary n-3 fatty acids decrease osteoclastogenesis and loss of bone mass in ovariectomized mice. J Bone Miner Res 18:1206–1216
Shen CL, Yeh JK, Rasty J et al (2007) Improvement of bone quality in gonad-intact middle-aged male rats by long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Calcif Tissue Int 80:286–293
Watkins BA, Li Y, Seifert MF (2006) Dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid: actions on bone mineral and serum biomarkers in ovariectomized rats. J Nutr Biochem 17:282–289
Kruger MC, Horrobin DF (1997) Calcium metabolism, osteoporosis and essential fatty acids: a review. Prog Lipid Res 36:131–151
Claassen N, Coetzer H, Steinmann CM, Kruger MC (1995) The effect of different n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratios on calcium balance and bone in rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 53:13–19
Claassen N, Potgieter HC, Seppa M et al (1995) Supplemented gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid influence bone status in young male rats: effects on free urinary collagen crosslinks, total urinary hydroxyproline, and bone calcium content. Bone 16:385S–392S
Liu D, Veit HP, Denbow DM (2004) Effects of long-term dietary lipids on mature bone mineral content, collagen, crosslinks, and prostaglandin E2 production in Japanese quail. Poult Sci 83:1876–1883
Caughey GE, Mantzioris E, Gibson RA, Cleland LG, James MJ (1996) The effect on human tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63:116–122
Macdonald HM, New SA, Fraser WD, Campbell MK, Reid DM (2005) Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 81:923–933
Conflicts of interest
This study was partially supported by the Health Services Research Fund, Food and Health Bureau, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .
About this article
Cite this article
Chen, Ym., Ho, S.C. & Lam, S.S. Higher sea fish intake is associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women. Osteoporos Int 21, 939–946 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-009-1029-4
- Bone density
- Bone mineral content
- Postmenopausal women