Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture—a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
- 414 Downloads
Vitamin C may play a role in bone health. In the Framingham Study, subjects with higher total or supplemental vitamin C intake had fewer hip fractures and non-vertebral fractures as compared to subjects with lower intakes. Therefore, vitamin C may have a protective effect on bone health in older adults.
Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary, and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15- to 17-year follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study.
Three hundred and sixty-six men and 592 women (mean age 75 ± 5 years) completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 1988–1989 and were followed for non-vertebral fracture until 2003 and hip fracture until 2005. Tertiles of vitamin C intake were created from estimates obtained using the Willett FFQ, after adjusting for total energy (residual method). Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards regression, adjusting for covariates.
Over follow-up 100 hip fractures occurred. Subjects in the highest tertile of total vitamin C intake had significantly fewer hip fractures (P trend = 0.04) and non-vertebral fractures (P trend = 0.05) compared to subjects in the lowest tertile of intake. Subjects in the highest category of supplemental vitamin C intake had significantly fewer hip fractures (P trend = 0.02) and non-vertebral fractures (P trend = 0.07) compared to non-supplement users. Dietary vitamin C intake was not associated with fracture risk (all P > 0.22).
These results suggest a possible protective effect of vitamin C on bone health in older adults.
KeywordsAgeing Bone Fracture Nutrition Population studies Vitamin C
This study was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Services agreement number 58-1950-7-707; Framingham Osteoporosis grant number R01 AR/AG 41398; and the NHLBI’s Framingham study contract grant number N01-HC-25195.
Conflicts of interest
- 4.WHO Scientific Group (2003) Prevention and management of osteoporosis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 921:1–164, back coverGoogle Scholar
- 5.Macdonald HM, New SA, Golden MH, Campbell MK, Reid DM (2004) Nutritional associations with bone loss during the menopausal transition: evidence of a beneficial effect of calcium, alcohol, and fruit and vegetable nutrients and of a detrimental effect of fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 79:155–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Termine JD (1990) Bone matrix proteins and the mineralization process. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, KelseyvilleGoogle Scholar
- 28.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture (2005) Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 29.Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of DRIs, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar