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Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women

Abstract

Summary

Women participated in 5 months of unilateral concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) isokinetic resistance training of the legs and arms. Limb muscular strength increased as did total body, leg, and arm fat-free soft tissue mass, total body BMC, hip BMD, and forearm BMC and BMD. Isokinetic training benefits bone mineral acquisition.

Introduction and hypothesis

Isokinetic resistance training (IRT) is osteogenic; however, it is not known if concentric or eccentric modalities of IRT produce differential effects on bone. We tested our hypothesis that high-load eccentric versus concentric mode of IRT would produce greater increases in muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in trained legs and arms.

Methods

Participants were randomized to 5 months of concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) training. The non-dominant leg and arm were used during training; dominant limbs served as controls. Muscular strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer; body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results

Muscular strength of the concentrically and eccentrically trained leg (18.6%; 28.9%) and arm (12.5%; 24.6%) significantly increased with training. Gains in total body (TB) BMC (p < 0.05) and, in the trained limbs, total proximal femur BMD (p < 0.05) and total forearm BMD (p < 0.05) and BMC (p < 0.05) occurred in both groups. FFSTM increased for the TB and trained leg and arm (all p < 0.001) in both modes.

Conclusion

Regardless of the mode, high-intensity, slow-velocity IRT increases muscular strength and FFSTM of trained limbs and imparts benefits to TB BMC and site-specific BMD and BMC in young women.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to participants for their involvement in this study and to J.M. Beiseigel and M.K. Zack for their technical assistance in the laboratory. This study was funded by a grant from the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (#DAMD 17-00-1-0114).

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Correspondence to S. M. Nickols-Richardson.

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Nickols-Richardson, S.M., Miller, L.E., Wootten, D.F. et al. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women. Osteoporos Int 18, 789–796 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-006-0305-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-006-0305-9

Keywords

  • Bone densitometry
  • Bone mineral
  • Mechanical loading
  • Muscular strength
  • Women