Osteoporosis International

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 789–796 | Cite as

Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women

  • S. M. Nickols-Richardson
  • L. E. Miller
  • D. F. Wootten
  • W. K. Ramp
  • W. G. Herbert
Original Article



Women participated in 5 months of unilateral concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) isokinetic resistance training of the legs and arms. Limb muscular strength increased as did total body, leg, and arm fat-free soft tissue mass, total body BMC, hip BMD, and forearm BMC and BMD. Isokinetic training benefits bone mineral acquisition.

Introduction and hypothesis

Isokinetic resistance training (IRT) is osteogenic; however, it is not known if concentric or eccentric modalities of IRT produce differential effects on bone. We tested our hypothesis that high-load eccentric versus concentric mode of IRT would produce greater increases in muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in trained legs and arms.


Participants were randomized to 5 months of concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) training. The non-dominant leg and arm were used during training; dominant limbs served as controls. Muscular strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer; body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.


Muscular strength of the concentrically and eccentrically trained leg (18.6%; 28.9%) and arm (12.5%; 24.6%) significantly increased with training. Gains in total body (TB) BMC (p < 0.05) and, in the trained limbs, total proximal femur BMD (p < 0.05) and total forearm BMD (p < 0.05) and BMC (p < 0.05) occurred in both groups. FFSTM increased for the TB and trained leg and arm (all p < 0.001) in both modes.


Regardless of the mode, high-intensity, slow-velocity IRT increases muscular strength and FFSTM of trained limbs and imparts benefits to TB BMC and site-specific BMD and BMC in young women.


Bone densitometry Bone mineral Mechanical loading Muscular strength Women 


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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Nickols-Richardson
    • 3
  • L. E. Miller
    • 1
  • D. F. Wootten
    • 1
  • W. K. Ramp
    • 2
  • W. G. Herbert
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise (0430)Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Health Research GroupRockbridge BathsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Nutritional SciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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