Osteoporosis International

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 789–796 | Cite as

Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women

  • S. M. Nickols-Richardson
  • L. E. Miller
  • D. F. Wootten
  • W. K. Ramp
  • W. G. Herbert
Original Article

Abstract

Summary

Women participated in 5 months of unilateral concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) isokinetic resistance training of the legs and arms. Limb muscular strength increased as did total body, leg, and arm fat-free soft tissue mass, total body BMC, hip BMD, and forearm BMC and BMD. Isokinetic training benefits bone mineral acquisition.

Introduction and hypothesis

Isokinetic resistance training (IRT) is osteogenic; however, it is not known if concentric or eccentric modalities of IRT produce differential effects on bone. We tested our hypothesis that high-load eccentric versus concentric mode of IRT would produce greater increases in muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in trained legs and arms.

Methods

Participants were randomized to 5 months of concentric (n = 37) or eccentric (n = 33) training. The non-dominant leg and arm were used during training; dominant limbs served as controls. Muscular strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer; body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results

Muscular strength of the concentrically and eccentrically trained leg (18.6%; 28.9%) and arm (12.5%; 24.6%) significantly increased with training. Gains in total body (TB) BMC (p < 0.05) and, in the trained limbs, total proximal femur BMD (p < 0.05) and total forearm BMD (p < 0.05) and BMC (p < 0.05) occurred in both groups. FFSTM increased for the TB and trained leg and arm (all p < 0.001) in both modes.

Conclusion

Regardless of the mode, high-intensity, slow-velocity IRT increases muscular strength and FFSTM of trained limbs and imparts benefits to TB BMC and site-specific BMD and BMC in young women.

Keywords

Bone densitometry Bone mineral Mechanical loading Muscular strength Women 

References

  1. 1.
    Balnave CD, Thompson MW (1993) Effect of training on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. J Appl Physiol 75:1545–1551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hather BM, Tesch PA, Buchanan P et al (1991) Influence of eccentric actions on skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance training. Acta Physiol Scand 143:177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Higbie EJ, Cureton KJ, Warren GL III et al (1996) Effects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and neural activation. J Appl Physiol 81:2173–2181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bast SC, Vangsness CT Jr, Takemura J et al (1998) The effects of concentric versus eccentric isokinetic strength training of the rotator cuff in the plane of the scapula at various speeds. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 57:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dudley GA, Tesch PA, Miller BJ et al (1991) Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training. Aviat Space Environ Med 62:543–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Enoka RM (1996) Eccentric contractions require unique activation strategies by the nervous system. J Appl Physiol 81:2339–2346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hawkins SA, Schroeder ET, Wiswell RA et al (1999) Eccentric muscle action increases site-specific osteogenic response. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1287–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schroeder ET, Hawkins SA, Jaque SV (2004) Musculoskeletal adaptations to 16 weeks of eccentric progressive resistance training in young women. J Strength Cond Res 18:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haapasalo H, Sievanen H, Kannus P et al (1996) Dimensions and estimated mechanical characteristics of the humerus after long-term tennis loading. J Bone Miner Res 11:864–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kerr D, Morton A, Dick I et al (1996) Exercise effects on bone mass in postmenopausal women are site-specific and load-dependent. J Bone Miner Res 11:218–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller LE, Nickols-Richardson SM, Wootten DF et al (2004) Relationships among bone mineral density, body composition, and isokinetic strength in young women. Calcif Tissue Int 74:229–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miller LE, Pierson LM, Nickols-Richardson SM et al (2006) Knee extensor and flexor torque development with concentric and eccentric isokinetic training. Res Q Exerc Sport 77:58–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nickols-Richardson SM, Miller LE, Wootten DF et al (2005) Distal tibia areal bone mineral density (aBMD): use in detecting low aBMD of the hip in young women. J Clin Densitom 8:74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vuori I, Heinonen A, Sievanen H et al (1994) Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral density and content in young women: a study of mechanical loading and deloading on human bones. Calcif Tissue Int 55:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Kannus P et al (1996) Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral mass and estimated mechanical characteristics of the upper limb bones in young women. J Bone Miner Res 11:490–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Winters KM, Snow CM (2000) Detraining reverses positive effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 15:2495–2503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lohman T, Going S, Pamenter R et al (1995) Effects of resistance training on regional and total bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 10:1015–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peterson SE, Peterson MD, Raymond G et al (1991) Muscular strength and bone density with weight training in middle-aged women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:499–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pettersson U, Alfredson H, Nordstrom P et al (2000) Bone mass in female cross-country skiers: relationship between muscle strength and different BMD sites. Calcif Tissue Int 67:199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soderman K, Bergstrom E, Lorentzon R et al (2000) Bone mass and muscle strength in young female soccer players. Calcif Tissue Int 67:297–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sandstrom P, Jonsson P, Lorentzon R et al (2000) Bone mineral density and muscle strength in female ice hockey players. Int J Sports Med 21:524–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Friedlander AL, Genant HK, Sadowsky S et al (1995) A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women. J Bone Miner Res 10:574–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blimkie CJR, Rice S, Webber CE et al (1996) Effects of resistance training on bone mineral content and density in adolescent females. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 74:1025–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Modlesky CM, Lewis RD (2002) Does exercise during growth have a long-term effect on bone health? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 30:171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taaffe DR, Marcus R (2004) The muscle strength and bone density relationship in young women: Dependence on exercise status. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 44:98–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saggese G, Baroncelli GI, Bertelloni S (2002) Puberty and bone development. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 16:53–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Haapasalo H, Kannus P, Sievanen H et al (1994) Long-term unilateral loading and bone mineral density and content in female squash players. Calcif Tissue Int 54:249–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sievanen H et al (1994) The site-specific effects of long-term unilateral activity on bone mineral density and content. Bone 15:279–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McClanahan BS, Harmon-Clayton K, Ward KD et al (2002) Side-to-side comparisons of bone mineral density in upper and lower limbs of collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 16:586–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Proctor KL, Adams WC, Shaffrath JD et al (2002) Upper-limb bone mineral density of female collegiate gymnasts versus controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1830–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Nickols-Richardson
    • 3
  • L. E. Miller
    • 1
  • D. F. Wootten
    • 1
  • W. K. Ramp
    • 2
  • W. G. Herbert
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise (0430)Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Health Research GroupRockbridge BathsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Nutritional SciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations