Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people


We have evaluated the association between trunk deformities of the sagittal plane and functional impairment of daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The analysis involved a detailed assessment of indoor and outdoor activities of daily living, satisfaction with life, and mental status. The participants in this study were 236 community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years and older, living in Kahoku district of Kochi in Japan. The participants were classified based on their posture, which was assessed using photographs of the subjects, and interviewed to assess their basic activities of daily living (BADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and cognitive well-being in the cross-sectional study. The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The lumbar kyphosis group received significantly lower BADL and IADL scores than the normal group. The trunk deformity group which were defined as kyphosis, flat back, and lumbar lordosis groups exhibited decreases in activities that included going out, shopping, depositing and withdrawing money, and visiting friends in the hospital. These activities require going outdoors; thus, this study showed that the trunk deformity group had limitations in outdoor activities. There was no significant difference between the geriatric depression score (GDS) and the pattern of posture. The abnormal trunk deformity groups tended to score lower than the normal group with regard to subjective healthiness and life satisfaction measures, including subjective health condition, everyday feeling, satisfaction with human relationships, satisfaction with economic condition, and satisfaction with present life.

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Correspondence to Toshiaki Takahashi.

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Takahashi, T., Ishida, K., Hirose, D. et al. Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people. Osteoporos Int 16, 273–279 (2005).

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  • Activities of daily living
  • Kyphosis
  • Life satisfaction
  • Trunk deformity