Radial bone density and breast cancer risk in white and African-American women
A number of different models for assessing individual risk of breast cancer use known risk factors such as age, age at menarche, age at first live birth, previous breast biopsies, and family history. High bone mass in white women is also associated with an increased breast cancer risk; however, bone mass as a risk factor has not been studied in African-American women. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate bone mineral density as a risk factor for breast cancer in white and African-American women. We recruited 221 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from a comprehensive breast cancer center at a large university hospital, and 197 control women who were frequency matched for ethnicity and age. Odds ratios were based on proximal and distal radial bone density measured by peripheral bone densitometry (Norland pDEXA) and expressed as a standardized “Z-score” (age and ethnicity specific). Logistic regression models were fitted controlling for body mass index, menopausal status, age, and HRT use (ever/never and duration). With proximal bone density Z-score included in the model as a continuous variable, a one-unit increase in radial shaft bone density increased the risk of breast cancer by 25% (p=0.02). When proximal bone density Z-score was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (≤0, >0) the odds ratio was 1.98 (95% CI, 1.32 to 2.97); that is, having an above average proximal bone density (age-specific) doubles the risk of breast cancer. There were no significant interactions with, and no appreciable confounding effects by, other covariates. An above-average radial shaft Z-score is a significant risk factor for breast cancer in both white and African-American women. The present study extends the association between bone mass and breast cancer risk to African-Americans, and suggests another potential application for bone density testing.
KeywordsBone density Breast cancer risk Ethnicity
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